Youth fitness test part i teaching children physical education
Youth Fitness Test
Part I Teaching Children Physical Education
1. Why is teaching children physical education considered one of the most challenging jobs?
Teaching physical education is considered a challenge because of the obstacles and benefits that a physical education teacher will experience during his or her career. On one hand they must deal with varying ages of children, children who may not like doing physical activities and conflict of priorities between the principal and teachers about timing, equipment and space issues. In light of the obstacles, there is also benefits. The benefit of being around children and seeing them master a skill makes the obstacles easier and look forward to proud moments.
2. Describe the approach of a “good teacher”.
The approach of a good physical education teacher is “to orchestrate teaching skills and develop lessons that are both absorbing and beneficial to children of all ages and abilities” (p. 4).
3. What are the components of success for teaching?
The first component of successful teaching is the children and the goals set for them to learn physical activities. The second component is the physical education teacher to feel a sense of accomplishment and success. Lastly is the need for a supportive and consistent physical education program.
Planning to maximize learning
4. Why is planning necessary in a physical education program?
Planning is necessary in a physical education program because to have a great program considerable amount of time must be dedicated to “to design programs that fulfill the needs of children” (p. 16). There is also limited teaching time so there must be a concerted effort to carefully plan the lesson that will tight to the children.
5. When is it the most important time to measure the success of a program?
The most important time to measure the success of a program is “when children leave a program after five or six years” (p. 24).
6. Describe one exit goal you think is important for children who to have accomplished by the time they leave elementary school.
One exit goal that I think children needs to accomplish by the time they leave elementary school is object control. Object control meaning punt and catch/field.
7. Name some of the segments of a daily lesson plan typically used by physical education teachers.
Some of the segments of a daily lesson plan include a format for the topic of the lesson, introduction about the purpose of the lesson and a brief description or a list of task that students should accomplish.
Creating a positive learning environment
8. Name three stereotypes associated with physical activity.
Three stereotypes associated with physical activity is boys are better than girls, African Americans are fast runners and Hispanics are good soccer players (p. 38).
9. How would you create an emotionally safe environment for children?
I would create an emotionally safe environment for children by first understanding my role as a role model, know that physical education is for everyone and not just a few who excel well in sports. I will also never allow any type of name calling, belittling, intimidating, and making fun of others (p. 39).
10. What are the three protocols to be established in relation to equipment?
Three protocols to be established in relation to equipment is make sure children properly enter and leave the playground and or gym; starting or stopping when the teacher signals, cleaning up equipment when told, and selecting partners, teams and groups (p. 40).
11. What are the two characteristics that effective teachers display?
Effective teachers are often firm but warm while displaying a high degree of “critical demandingness” and post their rules for children to see often discuss them so that children feel a certain degree of ownership (p. 46
Minimizing off task behavior and discipline problems
12. Name and describe three strategies for minimizing off-task behaviors.
Three strategies for minimizing off-task behavior; keep your back to the wall in the gym or in the playground to make sure children can be seen at all times; proximity control by simply walking in the direction of the off-task child to let them know that you see their behavior; with-it-ness when children know that the teacher has eyes in the back of his or her head (p. 53).
13. Provide one example of “desirable rewards and undesirable consequences”.
One example of “desirable rewards and undesirable consequences” is the use of “free time” on Fridays as a reward. Children are threatened with a loss of free time, but part of the lesson plan is “free time” (p. 59-60).
14. What are the three characteristics of a successful discipline system?
Three characteristics of a successful discipline system is the discipline system should be carefully explained to children at the beginning of the school year; the teacher should consistently adhere to the criteria; the principal, classroom teachers, and parents must be supportive (p. 62).
15. What are the consequences of believing that children today are hard to teach them they were in the past?
Getting the lesson started
16. What are the advantages of instant activity?
The advantages of instant activity is to get the children moving versus sitting down quietly so that will be amore apt at listening as the gym class progress.
17. Define set induction and it’s purpose.
Set induction is finding ways to provoke children’s interest and enthusiasm. The purpose of set induction is to get the children excited about completing the lesson.
18. Explain how you would start a lesson.
I would start a lesson plan by jumping rope for 3 to 5 minutes. using one of the traditional ways like laps. Not for cardiorespiratory fitness, but as a warm-up.
19. Compare your way of starting a lesson with the traditional way of starting a lesson.
My way of starting a lesson plan will differ from the traditional calisthenics use will be to by using music while dribbling and jogging.
Instructing and Demonstrating
20. Explain why it may be difficult for teachers to limit their instructions to one cue at a time.
It may be difficult for teachers to limit their instructions to one cue at a time because it is more effective to use to focus on a single cue at a time (p. 137). More than one cue could also lead to misunderstanding by the teacher and the students.
21. Describe three ways a teacher can check to make sure the students understand the instructions.
The first way the teacher can check to make sure the students understand the instructions is recognition check. This is done by asking the children to raise their hand or give a thumbs-up or some other nonverbal signal. The second way is verbal by asking the children to repeat the cur or concept (p. 88).
22. Play-teach-play is a technique with both advantages and disadvantages. Describe each and suggest when it may be effective and when it may not.
One advantage of play-teach-play is that it heightens children’s interest because instruction and demonstration can be related to the game. The second is that children practice tasks in the actual context which they will be used (p. 94).
One disadvantage of play-teach-play is that children may not understand that in order to play a game you must practice first. Children will eventually learn the difference between physical education (emphasizing learning through practice) rather than recreational physical education (simply playing games with minimal instruction) (p. 95).
23. Explain one way to heighten a child’s interests in instruction that you might use.
One way to heighten a child’s interest in instruction is the use of CDS and or DVDS. Their use could be effective at demonstrating and motivating children (p. 95)
Motivating Children to Practice
24. Provide a brief description, using three examples that are used by the author and motivating children to practice.
The first example explained by the author is to provide a success oriented environment for the children by changing tasks so each child can succeed at high rates, encourage children to modify tasks to make them easier or harder to better match their ability and discourage children from making social comparisons (pgs. 100).
The second example is mastery learning where the teacher provide children with a variety of tasks, opportunities to make decisions about the tasks, self-paced instruction and choices of tasks and ways to measure personal improvement and avoid social comparisons (p. 103).
The third example is to provide a developmentally appropriate environment. The teacher motivates children by understanding that each child is different and encourage children to work hard and remain on task.
25. Analyze the difference between teaching by invitation in intratask variation.
Teaching by invitation allows the children to decide which task best suits his or her abilities whereas intratask variation the teacher makes the decision for the children.
26. What are some of the advantages of a peer-tutoring program?
Some advantages of peer-tutoring program is that it can motivate children to practice and work hard. It also helps children who have disabilities and are in mainstream school environments.
27. Explain one technique described in this chapter you feel most comfortable with as a teacher and are most likely to implement.
I would use the teaching by invitation technique. I am most comfortable with this technique because it allows the children to stay at their own pace with a little emphasis from the teacher.
Observing in analyzing
28. Describe the difference between child-centered and subject-centered physical education.
The difference between child-centered and subject-centered physical education is child centered is lessons selected by the teacher and its implementation is based on observations by the teacher. Subject-centered is the opposite whereas the lesson may be taught in an identical manner to all children (p. 120)
29. How would you determine if a lesson or teacher is child-center or subject-centered?
I would determine if a lesson or teacher is child-centered or subject centered by observing several lesson plans in a row taught to the same grade level (p. 121).
30. Describe the strategies you might use to effectively observe a team sport and then compare them to teaching physical education.
Strategies that I might use to effectively observe a team sport and compare it to teaching physical education is to
31. Why do teachers tend to try to observe many components simultaneously?
Teacher try to observe many components simultaneously because they attempt
Developing the content
32. Explain the term developing the content.
The term developing the content is a dynamic process of deciding on and implementing a developmentally progression of activities so that children will achieve the objectives decided on by the teacher (p. 129-130).
33. Describe how task are made harder or easier for children.
Task are made harder or easier for children by changing a movement from static (one movement done in self-space) to dynamic (combining two or more movements and often changing space). The teacher can also change the number of movements for a task and adding the number of children by partnering and or grouping children (p. 133).
34. Application or challenges are important in the teaching process. What do you think would happen if a teacher does not use challenges?
If a teacher does not use challenges they may cause children to lose interest if the child feels like the task is too easy and children who cannot complete a task may get discouraged.
35. Explain the value of feedback for teachers or children’s physical education.
The value of feedback allows the children to know how well they are doing and this can result in the children trying harder based on feedback form the teacher.
36. Describe one type of feedback you would use and the advantages of using that type of feedback.
To be effective, I would sometimes use positive, sometimes neutral and occasionally negative feedback (p. 155). One advantage of using these types of feedback is that it allows the teacher to influence performance of the students under different cues whited the feedback is positive, neutral or negative.
37. What do you think might happen if feedback were not provided to children?
If feedback was not given to children they may feel neglected and/or feel like the teacher does not care about them. They will also not know how they well they are performing a task or in the class. They are also preliminary studies that showed students who receive feedback learned more or better (p. 160).
38. Explain why a lot of feedback may not be necessarily be beneficial.
Although feedback is valuable, too much may lead to confusion by the child’s understanding of what they did right or wrong. Also, the teacher should make sure that each student practice hard before giving feedback (p. 160).
Building critical thinking skills
39. Describe the differences between convergent and divergent problem solving.
Convergent problem-solving lessons is where the teacher guides the children to discover one or more solutions. Divergent problem-solving lessons ask children to explore alternatives and discover many ways to solve a problem. Convergent problem solving has one or more correct answers and divergent has an infinite number of responses (p. 167).
40. Why does problem-solving require more time than a direct teaching approach?
Problem-solving is a cognitive process (indirect) approach that is learner centered and leaner explored and time-consuming in early stages. Direct teaching approaches is subject centered, teacher tells and is less time-consuming (p. 174).
41. What are some of the indicators that children are adapting to the problem-solving approach?
Some indicators that children are adapting to the problem-solving approach is the amount of time they remain involved in a problem and once children realize everything that is needed to complete a routine they take more time to make sure its done correctly and complete (p. 170)
Building positive feelings
42. What are some of the unintentional actions of teachers that contribute to how children feel about themselves and physical activity?
Some unintentional actions of teachers that contribute to how children feel about physical activities is by not providing choices, not analyzing teacher-student interactions and not considering emotional temperatures (pp. 179-181). Competitive games can also contribute to how children feel about physical activities (p. 187).
43. Explain how games can be modified to de-emphasize competition.
Games can be modified to de-emphasize competition by allowing children to choose the type of game they want to play, alternative scoring systems, and child-designed games (p. 185)
44. How does the selection of activities contribute to an undesirable feeling for some children in a class?
Selection of activities that contribute to an undesirable feeling for some children include picking teams, elimination games, and relays (p. 183)
45. What are the positive and negative effects of testing that children may experience?
Some positive effects of testing that children may experience include allowing the student to compare his or her current scores with past scores
Some negative effects of testing children include posting scores on a wall for everyone to see or enable the children and the use of standardized norms and criterion scores (p. 187).
Assessing and reporting children’s progress
46. Why is assessment an important part of a quality program?
There are several reasons why assessment is an important party of a quality program. The first reason it forces the teacher to look at each child. The second reason is assessments done in the fifth or sixth grades provide an overall analysis of the success of the program. The third reason is assessment programs with some recorded evidence about the progress the student makes to make informed decisions for future programs. The last benefit is an accountability measure using test (p. 194).
47. What are some of the ways to assess children’s improvement and understanding related to motor skills?
48. As an instructor, how would you report progress to parents based on student assessments?
Continue to develop as a Teacher
49. Why is it important for a teacher to continue to work to improve their teaching skills?
50. Do you agree with the three stages of teaching? Explain your answer.
Part II: Fitness Education for Children
51. Briefly describe the five components of health-related physical fitness.
52. Explain the “Rainbow to Youth Fitness and Active Lifestyles”.
53. According to the author, what motivates a child to move and be physically active?
54. List five examples of inappropriate practices and conditions that you would avoid as a teacher.
55. Briefly describe the three basic “attitudes toward students and their learning” that lead to significant learning” by the students.
56. Explain what is meant by “SPORT-FITT”.
57. In accordance with the application of FITT, what is the major purpose of a quality physical education program at the elementary level?
58. Why is it important for students to include a warm-up to begin their activities.
59. What might happen if a student does not cool down properly?
60. Compare and contrast “muscular strength” and “muscular endurance”.
61. Name five reasons why it is important to develop muscular strength and endurance
62. What health problems may be associated with increased level of body fat?
63. What is the most important disability elementary schools according to the author?
64. As a teacher, how would you help those students who are identified as obese.
65. What special precautions should you take my students who suffer from asthma?
66. Should you have the opportunity to instruct students in a wheelchair, what exercises could you incorporate to help gain upper body strength?
67. For a child who is mentally disabled, what instructing techniques would be most effective?
68. How would you go about getting parents more involved in their child’s physical education?
69. What is the most influential in varmint in a child’s life?
70. Provide a plan of how you would get your community more involved in your physical education program.
71. Provide your own sample lesson plan for an activity of your choice. Be sure to include important components such as lesson focus, objectives, equipment, safety considerations, set induction and procedures.
72. Name five major strategies to help open the channels of communication with teachers.
73. What are some activities at the elementary school level that would help to develop upper body strength?
74. Which exercises would help to develop lower back strength and endurance?
75. What are some safety precautions to keep in mind when planning dance in rhythmic activities for school age children?
Provide a detailed example of a fitness class you would teach to a group of children. You may define the age of the children that you would like to work with.
The class parameters for this class are the following:
-30 minutes in length
– Location is inside the gymnasium – – You have unlimited equipment available to you
– Your objective is to incorporate cardiovascular, strength and flexibility programming
– Provide a time line of what occurs during this 30 minutes
– Define what you will be instructing the children to do for each fitness component
– Discuss how you will motivate the children to stay involved
Books to use: Fitness R Education for Children 2nd edition ( Stephen Virgilio)
Teaching Children Physical Education by (George Graham) 3rd edition