SOLUTION: Spiritual World View Paraphrase Questions

SOLUTION: Spiritual World View Paraphrase Questions.

Spiritual World View
Spiritual World View
1. Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the
perspective of postmodern relativism within health care
Spirituality is a broad concept whose definition attracts diverse perspectives. The most
common perspective defines spirituality as the feeling of a connection to something more
significant than human life (Orr, 2015). Scholars have stated that human beings have a void in
their souls. Christians fill this void by believing in God and the holy trinity. Patients have the
freedom to accept or reject treatment. What they value most in life informs the final decision that
they take. The decision-making process is a spiritual undertaking that will yield reasonable
judgment (Smith & Quimba, 2019). For instance, there are specific Christian communities who
do not believe in taking medicine. In such a case, the patient is likely to decline treatment and
believe in God for healing.
Ethics involves making decisions to keep off wrongs and do good. Ethics also look at the
consistent behavioral patterns of an individual and the inner character of a person (Ferdinard &
Johannes, 2015). At this point, ethics and spirituality marry. An individual’s spirituality will
influence their ethical considerations and hence, their decision. (Pulchaski, 2001). It is
impossible to place spirituality and ethics in two separate spheres. Take a scenario where a
patient is brain dead, and the hospital is seeking permission to turn off life support machines. A
Christian family is likely to wait on God’s time for the victim to be completely dead. Most likely,
there were questions about the future state of the person if they were to live. However, their
belief in God informs their decision-making.
Postmodern relativism seeks to achieve a world where people can accommodate the
diversity of views and character. It implies that a health practitioner should understand and
respects the beliefs of a patient even as they attempt to administer treatment on them (Salladay,
2016). Before the postmodern era, patients were comfortable with what health practitioners had
to offer. However, there is now a change of behavior where patients are going for treatment with
no prior scientific proof and rejecting the hospital imposed truths.
2. Explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
Scientism is an excessive obsession with the power of science. People who believe in
scientism hold the view that the world revolves around science (Peels, 2017). They undermine
other systems that the world believes in such as religion and philosophy (Ani, 2016). It is
important to note that there is a difference between science and scientism. The former is a
discipline that seeks to explore the world using clear and concise methods, thus expanding
human knowledge. The latter looks into the meaning of the universe and consequently tries to
limit the world into a scientific shell.
There are several cases against scientism. One such is the case against the claims that
scientism is the only way there is to find out the truth. The demand accelerates since most
scientific conclusions are based on the presence of concrete evidence (Ani, 2016). Scientism
fanatics, therefore, dismiss philosophy or religion as a means towards the truth. Nevertheless,
this is a shallow claim, as science cannot explain everything. For instance, earlier scholars
believe in a higher power and even confess that each time they tried to tell their minds that
science was all there was to life, they felt a void. It is possible that this void only disappears after
spiritual interactions.
Another argument against scientism is the claim that one has to see it to believe it. Basic
individual experiences prove this assumption wrong (Ani, 2016). A scientist who is a strong
advocate for scientism once said, ‘we can only believe that the embryos will someday become
human beings.’ This implies that there is room left for humans to trust their gut instincts and
apply their beliefs.
3. Answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective
and worldview:
(a) What is ultimate reality?
Ultimate reality is the incomprehensible and complex nature that exists within every rational
human being. It stirs up many controversies, as individuals want their ultimate truth to be
superior to others and perhaps become primarily accepted. There are those who believe in
personal beings such as God for the Christian faith as their reality. Others believe in a specific
target for all human beings whose power is beyond human comprehension. The common aspect
of these two beliefs is that there is the presence of a higher power (Burnett, 2018). So, where is
the ultimate reality? God is the reality of Christians. According to Christian scriptures, faith is an
essential element in life. However, the proof of the ultimate truth for a Christian has answered
prayer. Another group believes in universally governing principles. Scientists fall in this category
as they think that the human brain has the intellectual capacity to figure out everything. The
discoveries made after that become the ultimate reality of this category.
(b) What is the nature of the universe?
There can never be a clear-cut definition of the nature of the universe as discoveries, and
theoretical perspectives on this are coined every other day. However, there are various
perspectives on the quality of the world from the religious, historical, and scientific views of how
the universe began. The spiritual perspective adopts the creation story where God is the sole
giver of life and man the caretaker of all the galaxies and wondrous creation. The historical view
on the nature of the universe talks about the evolution of all species that are in existence in
today’s world. The scientific perspectives improve by the day as scientists search for proof of
claims here on earth and in space. The most prominent scientific story on the nature of the
universe is the big bang theory that implies the world began with a big bang. From this, we can
derive the fact that the universe is diverse.
(c) What is a human being?
The general definition of a human being is; a man, woman, or a child with an advanced
developed brain that can control all the other creatures in the universe. History has a different
meaning, as it states, the man was a member of the primate family before evolving to the present
day Homo Sapiens Sapiens. There are claims by historical scholars indicating that evolution is
still going on. This is apparently because of the increasing levels of beauty seen generation after
generation. Intelligence levels among humans are on the rise. From a religious perspective, the
human being was the only creature created by God in his image and likeness and given authority
over the earth. A scientist, on the other hand, would claim that a human being is the only creature
in the world with the intellect to question who they are.
(d) What is knowledge?
Today’s society defines knowledge as an awareness of a particular subject, factor sets of
information. To achieve this, one has to undergo practical or theoretical training. The level of
knowledge acquisition differs with the individuals in question, as some are fast learners, while
others are slow learners. It is a norm for people to go to schools to acquire relevant knowledge. A
few are home-schooled away from the social menace that the world is. Then there is the illiterate
category that lacks access to primary education.
Nevertheless, it is not fair to define knowledge by the ability to attend a school, but by the value,
an individual can add to relevant fields. For instance, an illiterate woman from rural West Africa
can educate Ph.D. scholars on the importance of the fermented bean Daddawa. This type of
knowledge is priceless.
(e) What is your basis of ethics?
A few years ago, I was a strong advocate for moral relativism as a basis for ethics. Over
the years, I have come to realize how detrimental this basis is to personal beliefs and behaviors.
Today, I base ethics on the decisions that I can make outside the societal pressures of decisionmaking. This involves doing the right thing even when no one is watching. Moral relativism has
ruined the ethical considerations the society formerly leaned on. People believe it is okay to
behave in any way that makes them happy even if it is infringing on their fellow human rights.
Such behavior is bound to be the end of harmony within the human race.
(f) What is the purpose of your existence?
I believe that the purpose of my existence is to spread love to a world with so much hate
in it. To achieve this, I understand that I have to enlighten and appreciate my authentic self
continually. This will enable me to be spiritually awake at all times.
Ani, N.C. (2016). ‘Does scientism undermine other forms of knowledge?’ Verbum et Ecclesia
37(1), pp 1-9
Burnett, T., (2018). What is Scientism?. Retrieved from
Ferdinand, P., & Johannes, V.D.W., (2015). Postmodern Relativism and the Challenge to
Overcome the “Value-Vacuum.” Stellenbosch Theological Journal, 1(1), pp 235-254
Orr. D.R. (2015). Incorporating Spirituality into Patient Care. AMA Journal of Ethics, 17(5), pp
Peels, R. (2017). Ten Reasons to Embrace Scientism. Studies in History and Philosophy of
Science, pp 1-11
Puchalski, C. (2001). The role of spirituality in health care. Retrieved from
Salladay, A.S. (2016). Healing is Believing: Postmodernism Impacts Nursing. Scientific Review
of Alternative Medicine, 4(1)
Smith, L., & Quimba, M. (2019). “Faith and Spiritual Decision-Making in Health Care
Professions.” Retrieved from

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