SOLUTION: Abia Polytechnic University Improving an Muscular System Article Worksheet

SOLUTION: Abia Polytechnic University Improving an Muscular System Article Worksheet.

A guide for student editors
supported by Wiki Education
Why write for Wikipedia?
Wikipedia strives to represent “the sum of all human
knowledge.” While Wikipedia contains more than
5 million articles, a lot of that human knowledge is
still missing or underdeveloped
on Wikipedia.
When you’ve written papers
in the past, they were likely
read by just one person – your
instructor. When you write for
Wikipedia, you’re writing for an
audience of millions.
As a student, you can access knowledge that most
people can only dream of. You have your library.
You have access to academic journals and textbooks.
Writing for Wikipedia makes knowledge available for
others to learn from.
wikipedia globe vector [no layers]
You also have your brain. You have the critical
thinking skills, and the academic know-how, to help
others make sense of the subjects you’re studying.
Imagine the difference your knowledge can make in
people’s lives. That’s why we’re asking you to write
for Wikipedia.
This edition was published by
Wiki Education.
Design by David Peters
EXBROOK, San Francisco
All images from Wikimedia
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Wikipedia:CC-BY-SA) or any
later version.
Wiki Education
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Getting started
As you get started, it’s helpful to familiarize yourself with the tools and resources
you’ll be using for this assignment.
Enroll in your course
Click on the course page link provided by your
instructor, and you’ll be prompted to create a Wikipedia
Complete assigned training modules
Once you create an account and enroll on dashboard., you’ll have access to the training library.
A few training modules will be assigned throughout the
weeks of your timeline. These are important for you to
Other, shorter modules may also be assigned as part
of your course timeline. These offer a refresher, or new
skills that match the task you’ll do that week. You may
be graded on these trainings, so check back often to
keep up to date!
Consult the Dashboard each week
The Timeline feature on will give
you a sense of what you should be working on in any
given week.
New training modules and help resources will be made
available to you throughout the assignment.
Help is available!
Get Help
This button is visible on and your
Wikipedia sandbox. If you’re seeking feedback on your
draft, unsure about a message from another Wikipedian,
or have any questions at all, push the button. A
Wikipedia Expert will be in touch!
Your class will be assigned a Wikipedia Expert. They
are paid staff of Wiki Education, ready to help you with
expert advice and feedback.
You can request their help through the “Get Help”
Wiki Education 3
What’s the plan?
Here is an outline of the process it takes to write a good Wikipedia article. Each
task has its own section in this guide. Complete the associated training modules
for more information.
Writing a Wikipedia article, from start to finish
Get to know Wikipedia
Learn how writing for Wikipedia differs from your
typical classroom writing assignment. Review the
key policies that make Wikipedia work.
Choose your topic and identify
reliable sources
Select a Wikipedia article related to your course
topic that you can expand or create from
scratch. Keep in mind you’ll need to cite each
sentence you add.
Online Training: Wikipedia Policies
Online Training: Evaluating Articles and Sources
Write your first draft
Once you have a few good sources, start
drafting your article or contribution. You’ll do
this in a “sandbox” on Wikipedia. The online
student training will show you how.
Online Training: How to Edit
Add images
Pictures and diagrams make your article
informative for visual learners. Copyright rules
are tricky, so consult the training module before
uploading new images. If you found an image on
the internet, it probably can’t be used.
Online Training: Contributing Images and Media Files
Spruce up your work
Once you’ve written your article, review your
formatting to help it look and feel like the rest
of Wikipedia.
Make your work live
When you have written a few paragraphs, with
citations, you’re ready to go. Post your work to
“mainspace,” that is, the Wikipedia article!
Online Training: Moving Work Out of the Sandbox
Revise based on feedback
Now that you’re editing live, solicit feedback from
classmates. If you receive feedback from other
Wikipedians, revise your work and incorporate
good advice.
Other trainings, not listed here, may
be required for your class. Check your
course’s page often to be sure.
Online Exercise: Peer Review
Complete the online, interactive training modules on
Relevant modules are listed in this guide and are
linked from your course page.
Wiki Education
Get to know Wikipedia
Writing for Wikipedia differs from writing term papers, essays, and other
assignments. Here are a few differences to keep in mind.
Neutral point of view
Wikipedians have developed these
policies and principles over the years
so we can ensure that Wikipedia is
reliable and trustworthy.
You may be used to persuasive styles of
writing. On Wikipedia, you don’t want to
persuade. Articles don’t take sides, but
describe significant viewpoints published
in reliable sources. You want to share facts.
Wikipedia lets people interpret those facts
for themselves.
Online Training: Wikipedia Policies
Reliable sources
No original research
Wikipedia isn’t a place to share original
ideas or opinions. Instead, you should
summarize what others have published in
reliable sources about the topic. Skip the
thesis statement! Don’t offer your own
conclusions, interpretations, or analyses.
Online Training: Wikipedia Policies
Copyright and plagiarism
Everything you write must be in your
own words. Changing a few words while
maintaining the sentence structure used in a
source is still plagiarism.
You might use lengthy quotes in other
papers you write, but it would infringe
copyright to do that on Wikipedia. In rare
cases, when the precise wording matters,
a short, clearly marked quote may be
When people read a Wikipedia article, they
want to see where the information comes
from. That’s why you have to include
citations for anything you write.
Good sources have a reputation for factchecking. That means books published by
academic presses, peer-reviewed academic
journals, and international newspapers.
You should also use sources that represent
widely held viewpoints, rather than authors
who write to persuade readers to a particular
point of view.
Online Training: Adding Citations
Conflict of interest
If you have a conflict of interest about a
particular topic, avoid editing articles
about it. Don’t write about your instructors
or workplace, for example.
Online Training: Wikipedia Policies
Online Training: Plagiarism and Copyright Violation
Wiki Education 5
Choose your topic and identify reliable sources
Depending on your class, you may be assigned an article to develop, or asked
to choose one yourself. Choosing a topic for your article, and finding sources
that support that topic, is often a cyclical process. You’ll adapt your choice
based on what sources you find, and you’ll find more sources as you refine
your article topic.
Choose your topic
Choose a topic that you find in a
variety of good sources, but isn’t
well represented on Wikipedia. Avoid
overly broad topics. You’ll have
better luck writing about a narrowly
focused (though not too narrowly
focused) topic than on a broad
As you investigate your topic, you
may find there aren’t enough reliable
sources to write an article. If that’s
the case, start thinking about other
topics you’ve discovered.
Find good sources
Rather than search online, ask your
librarian to help you find good, reliable
sources. The best sources are recently
published books, textbooks, and peerreviewed work in academic journals
from reliable publishers, written by
experts in the field you’re writing about.
You’ll generally want to avoid blog
posts, information with a strong point
of view, and opinion columns.
When you find 3–5 good sources that
address your topic, you’re probably
ready to start writing. If you can’t,
reassess your selected topic.
When you’ve settled on the article
you want to improve, let your
instructor know by adding it to .
What makes a source trustworthy?
It’s not about agreeing with it. Think
critically, and look for sources that:
• Fact-check and/or publish corrections
• Don’t present some facts and omit others
to advance an agenda
• Don’t frame facts with a certain slant
Online Training: Adding Citations
Wiki Education
Write your first draft
Here’s a small but fully developed article to use as a model. For more ideas,
find an article on a topic similar to one you’d like to write, and think about how
it’s structured.
Lead section
This is a clear summary of
the most important parts of
the article. For a short article,
your lead may only be a few
sentences. It isn’t meant to
catch the reader’s attention,
or explain why the topic is
important. Instead, it’s a
quick summary of the article
in plain language.
Many, but not all, articles
contain an infobox that
describes key elements of the
topic. You can find an article
on a similar topic to yours,
copy the code for the infobox,
and adapt it to your article.
Body of the article
Each big idea can have its
own heading. In the case of
this article, the body covers
the history of the hurricane,
then its impact. A new article
may just have one section.
Freely licensed images can be
added to Wikipedia articles
from Wikimedia Commons.
(See pages 10–11.)
After the content comes a
section listing the sources
used in the article. This
should appear automatically.
Wiki Education 7
Write your first draft, continued
Wikipedia has a unique style of writing
You might be used to writing five-paragraph essays, research papers, or
persuasive arguments. Wikipedia uses a different style of writing. Keep to the
facts, and let your writing be clear, formal, and impersonal. You aren’t trying
to convince readers to agree with you. You’ll want to make sure they trust the
information you’re sharing.
Here’s a poorly written Wikipedia article:
Britannica and the Future of Encyclopedias
Encyclopædia Britannica, although a celebrated and historically
significant encyclopedia, has little relevance in modern society.
Instead, most experts agree that the future of the encyclopedia
genre belongs to Wikipedia and other wiki encyclopedias —
Here’s why:
This title is too much like an essay. Who
can factually talk about the future?
Has “little relevance” according to whom?
Don’t make any original arguments.
Don’t use “weasel words” (like “most
experts agree” or “some people say”).
created by regular folks like you and me. Ironically, while it was a
great influence on Jimmy Wales and the intrepid new generation
of amateur encyclopedists who created — and continue to create
— Wikipedia, Britannica in recent years has come to symbolize
everything wrong about the old ways of creating and distributing
knowledge: top-down control, unaccountable gatekeepers
Avoid casual language and slang, or any
references to yourself or the reader.
Don’t use “fluff terms” (like “great”,
“extraordinary”, or “intrepid”).
Don’t inject your opinion into the article.
who decide what does and does not merit coverage, copyright
restrictions and high prices that limit access to the wealthy,
and — in its current online form — intrusive advertising that
Don’t use overly complex language and
sentence structure.
undercuts the reliability and usability of its content.
Here’s a better article:
Since the early 1990s, the Britannica has faced new challenges
from digital information sources. In rapidly changing fields such
as science, technology, politics, culture, and modern history,
the Britannica has struggled to stay up-to-date, a problem first
analyzed systematically by its former editor Walter Yust.[1]
Although the Britannica is now available both in multimedia form
and over the Internet, its preeminence is being challenged by
other online encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia.[2]
Online Training: Wikipedia Policies
Wiki Education
Here’s why:
• It’s short and to the point, with
plain language.
• It cites sources for factual claims.
One citation per statement is the
minimum expectation.
• It attributes viewpoints to the
people who hold them.
• It states a conclusion, but
attributes it to a specific source.
Writing your lead
When you create a Wikipedia article, the lead is the first section. It’s the part of a
Wikipedia article that most people read, and it can even be presented by search
engines when you look up your topic! That’s why it’s crucial to get it right.
A good lead summarizes the entire article by briefly covering all important aspects
of the topic. One good strategy for writing a Wikipedia article is to draft a lead
section first, which you can then use as an outline for the rest of the article.
Ultimately, you’ll need to revisit your lead when you finish writing your article.
Adjust it to reflect the finished product.
Writing the first sentence
The first sentence should serve as a definition of the article topic, with the
topic itself — be it a person, place, thing, idea or concept — in bold, and a brief
description that puts it into context.
For example, a biography would look like this, with
the name in bold, and the birthdate after the name in
An article about a social theory would look like this,
with the idea in bold.
An article about a plant, animal, or other species would
look like this, with the common name in bold and the
scientific name in italics and parenthesis.
Anna Anderson (c. 16 December 1896 –
12 February 1984) was the best known
of several impostors who claimed
to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of
Capitalism is an economic system
based on private ownership of the
means of production and their
operation for profit.
Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal,
ruminant mammals typically kept as
How is Wikipedia different from a college essay?
Fact-based, not persuasive writing
Rather than making an argument, think of the article
as a description of the information you can find about
a topic, based on good sources.
Formal tone and simple language
Articles should be written in a formal tone, but with
easy-to-understand language. Wikipedia isn’t the place
to show off your extensive vocabularies or mastery
of jargon. People who have never heard of the topic
before will be reading your writing. Keep it clear, and
help them learn!
No large block quotes
You might be used to quoting large passages from other
works, but Wikipedia’s policies ask you to paraphrase
whenever possible. Provide information in your own
Pickier about sources
Wikipedia is very particular about where its information
comes from. You may find that some sources that
would work in a typical college paper won’t work here.
Wiki Education 9
Add images
Adding images and illustrations to Wikipedia can be tricky. You can’t
just grab images you find by doing an image search. Instead, you have
to make sure the person who made the image has published it under
a free license, such as a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike
license (CC BY-SA). Even so-called “free” images on websites usually
aren’t acceptable.
You can’t use it, even if…

You don’t see any copyright notice.
The image is older than the internet.
The creator has died.
It’s a publicity shot for a movie, book, album, etc.
You own a copy of a photo (unless you took it yourself).
You scanned it from a book.
So, where can you find legitimate photos?
It may seem impossible to find an image you can use on Wikipedia.
That’s why Wikimedia Commons,, is so
important! That’s where you can find freely licensed images already
approved for use on Wikipedia. If you can’t find something there, try
using Creative Commons Search to find freely licensed files:
You must check both options: “Use for commercial purposes” and
“Modify, adapt, or build upon”
Options to find freely licensed images:
• Within the Wikipedia editing window, click “Insert,” then “Media,” to get access to
all the images on Wikimedia Commons.
• You can look in open-access academic journals, such as those from the Public
Library of Science (PLOS), which have useful scientific and medical illustrations.
• You can find photos on Flickr, but they MUST be shared under a CC BY-SA license.
From Flickr’s search page, you’ll want to search for “Commerical use & mods
allowed,” “No known copyright restrictions,” and “U.S. Government works.”
• You can also use public domain images. Those are images with expired copyrights,
and anything created by the U.S. federal government.
When in doubt, ask your Wikipedia Expert by using the “Get Help”
button. If you upload an image that doesn’t belong on Wikipedia, it
can create a lot of problems for you and the Wikipedia community.
Online Training: Contributing Images and Media Files
Wiki Education
What is NOT allowed
on Commons
By default, you can’t upload
someone else’s work. That
includes your own photographs
of someone else’s work, such
as a painting or movie poster.
Never upload:
• Most pictures published
on the internet, especially
image-sharing sites such as
Instagram, Tumblr, Imgur,
Reddit, or so-called “free
image” or “stock photo”
• Logos
• Photos scanned from
• Promotional photos
• Screenshots of TV shows,
movies, or DVDs
What is allowed
on Commons
You may upload works that
you created entirely yourself.
This includes photos,
diagrams, charts, and videos
such as:
• Pictures you take of natural
landscapes, animals, plants,
or everyday objects (i.e., not
art such as a sculpture or
• Explanatory diagrams you’ve
made. For example, a Bohr
diagram, a flowchart, or
anatomical illustration.
• People photographed in
public places.
How to add an image to a Wikipedia article
You may not find any images for your Wikipedia article. That’s OK! But if
you’ve made an image, chart, or diagram, or found one on Creative Commons
Search, here’s how to add it to your article. If the image is already on Wikimedia
Commons, skip to step 4.
1 Go to, and click
“Upload file.”
(Be sure you are logged in.)
Photo: Jubilee and Munin, Ravens, Tower of London © User:Colin / Wikimedia
Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0
2 The upload wizard will give you step-bystep instructions for uploading your work.
If it’s not your own work, make sure
the image is explicitly described as
CC BY-SA, CC BY, or public domain.
Name the creator of the image, and link
to the source.
3 Add one or more categories describing
the subject of the file.
Wikimedia Commons can group related
files into categories. For example, bonsai
trees are grouped under Category:Bonsai.
4 To add the image to a Wikipedia article,
go to the section of the article where you
want the image to appear.
Click “Edit” and then click the media
icon (
). Search for the name of your
file, and select it.
5 Save the page. You’re done!
Online Training: Contributing Images and Media Files
Wiki Education
Spruce up your work
Adding links to and from your article
One of the great joys of Wikipedia is the interesting links that lead to other
compelling articles. Creating wikilinks helps others discover your article.
Creating a wikilink
What might your reader want to learn about to deepen their
knowledge of your topic? Once you have a few ideas, go back to your
article. Find the first time these ideas are mentioned in the text
(not in headers or subtitles, which should never be links). That first
in-text mention is the best place to create a wikilink to the article
about that idea.
1 To link to another Wikipedia article, choose the “edit” option in
the section of your article you want to link from.
2 Highlight the word you want to become a wikilink, and press the
link button ( ) in the editor window.
3 A list will pop up, showing Wikipedia’s related articles for the
highlighted word. Select the article you want to link.
4 Click the “Save” button, and enter your edit summary. “Created
wikilink” is a fine summary. Click “Save page,” and you’re all
Using headings
Use section headings to distinguish important ideas or broad
subtopics. Don’t use them as paragraph headers, or to break up the
article. Think carefully about the structure of your article before you
start writing. As you write about different aspects of a topic, those
aspects will guide sensible choices for your headings.
• Headings should never be questions.
• Don’t number your headings or sections.
• Only capitalize the first word of a heading and any proper nouns.
• Don’t keep naming the subject in your headings. For example,
an article about Barack Obama might use the heading “Childhood,”
not “Barack Obama’s childhood.”
Online Training: Drafting in the Sandbox
Wiki Education
Never use this method to
link to a page that isn’t a
Wikipedia article. You can
create an “External links”
section at the end of the
Make your work live
The online training will show you how to find and use your sandbox to draft an
article. Once you have a few well-cited sentences in your sandbox, you can create
a new article, or bring your work over to an existing article to improve it.
Improving an existing article
If you’ve been developing an improvement to an existing article in
your sandbox, you’ll want to be careful when it’s time to make it
live. Edit your sandbox and copy just a sentence or two at a time
into the existing article, then save the article before copying a little
more in. Copying and pasting in small steps makes it less likely
you will unintentionally cause an error that may be difficult to fix.
Avoid using other text editors like Word or Google Docs; they can
cause weird text errors when copied onto Wikipedia.
Never copy and paste your
work over an entire article!
Improve the existing text or
add new text.
Online Training: Moving Work Out of the Sandbox
Creating a new article
1 Go to your sandbox (or wherever you’ve
been drafting your article). On the
sandbox page (where your article is), look
to the right. To the left of your search bar
is a tab called “More.” Click it, and then
click “Move.”
2 Click the box that says User and change
it to (Article). Delete all the text in
this window and carefully type ONLY
your article’s title. Pay attention to
punctuation and spelling, because this
can be hard to change once you move it.
Look at similar topics and choose a title
that matches theirs. Don’t use an essay
format, or title it with a question. The
best title is usually the simplest statement
of what your article is about.
3 In the Reason box, enter “Ready for
4 Review your title one last time, and then
click on the blue “Move page” button.
5 Now, you can link 1–3 other articles
to your article. Find relevant words in
other articles, and follow the wikilinks
instructions on page 12.
Wiki Education 13
Revise based on feedback
Every article has its own Talk page . Wikipedia is a collaboration of
thousands of people, and Talk pages are where they negotiate decisions.
You’ll use Talk pages to make suggestions, post sources, and discuss
changes with other Wikipedians.
Look, a new Notification!
These let you know when someone
mentions your username, thanks you
for an edit, or leaves a message on
your User Talk page.
To hold a discussion with other Wikipedians on a Talk page, you’ll
need to use wikicode, also known as wiki markup. We’ve provided a
guide on the back cover to help you format your text on a Talk page.
Remember to end all of your comments with four tildes (~~~~) to
sign your name.
What if your work is challenged or removed?
You may find that your work is challenged, or removed outright. If
someone has reverted your edit, make sure you read what they said
in their edit summary by checking the View history tab of the article.
Check to see if they left more information on the article’s Talk page.
Your instructor can see everything you add to Wikipedia, even if other
Wikipedians remove it. Don’t worry about your grade, and never ask
anyone to stop improving an article because of your grade. Instead,
discuss the content respectfully, and work to find a solution you both
can live with.
If you ever recieve a message you can’t understand, or if you’re not
comfortable responding to it yourself (for any reason!) contact your
course’s Wikipedia Expert. They’ll get in touch with you.
• Be polite. Remember, it’s difficult to read sarcasm and irony in text.
• Assume good faith. Other editors are trying to improve the project.
Try to see their point of view, discuss things on the Talk page when you
disagree, and find a solution.
• Never simply post deleted content back into the article.
• Discuss article content, not editors. Do not make personal attacks.
Online Exercise: Peer Review
Wiki Education
Final review
Is the title short and simple?
Make sure it doesn’t look like an essay, or asks a question.
Is the first sentence direct and useful?
It should clearly define the subject, with the topic of the article in bold.
Is the lead section a clear summary?
The lead shouldn’t be written like an introduction, or argue why the topic is
important to read about. It’s just a condensed summary of what’s in the article
below. Everything in the lead should be mentioned in the article, too.
Did you write in your own words?
Check that the article doesn’t contain excessive quotations, or copy any sources,
even if you’ve given them credit.
Is the article clear to a non-expert?
Check that you’ve explained acronyms and jargon in simple English the first time
you use them.
Does the article let the reader decide for themselves?
Rewrite any persuasive language that aims to sway a reader to a conclusion.
Don’t ask the reader to do something. Let the reader make their own conclusions
based on the facts.
Did you proofread your article?
Do a basic grammar and spelling check. Make sure your sentences are complete
sentences. Remove any first-person (“I/we”) or second-person (“you”) writing.
Is your formatting consistent with the rest of Wikipedia?
Don’t use too many bullet-pointed lists or too many headings in your article.
Check page 12 for help with headings.
Are the pictures in your article shared on Wikimedia Commons?
If it isn’t your own image, link to evidence that the copyright is shared under a free
copyright license. Make sure you do this on Wikimedia Commons, not Wikipedia
itself. (If you added it from Wikipedia’s media tool, it’s usually fine.)
Is every claim cited to a reliable source?
Good sources include textbooks or academic journals. Don’t cite blog posts.
Did you make links between Wikipedia articles?
Link relevant words to other Wikipedia articles the first time they appear.
Visit other Wikipedia articles and link them to the article you’ve been working on,
too. Stick to words that relate directly to your topic.
Did you thank people who helped you?
Check your User Talk page, and the Talk page of your article. If anyone offered help
or feedback, say thanks!
Did you try searching for your topic online?
A week after you’ve created an article, try doing a web search for your topic on a
search engine. You may be surprised to see your own writing!
Wiki Education 15
Wiki markup cheatsheet
These examples cover the formatting needed most often when editing
Wikipedia articles with wiki markup. You’ll need to use wiki markup to carry
on discussions with other Wikipedians on Talk pages.
What you type
What you get
”italic text”
italic text
”’bold text”’
bold text
Section headers
==Heading text==
Heading text
===Sub-heading text===
Sub-heading text
====Sub-heading text====
Sub-heading text
Link to another
Wikipedia page
(Internal link)
[[Martin Luther King Jr.]]
Martin Luther King Jr.
Internal link with
different text
[[Martin Luther King Jr.|MLK]]
Link to another
[ Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Bulleted list
* Wikipedia
* Encyclopædia Britannica
• Wikipedia
• Encyclopædia Britannica
Numbered list
# Canada
# United States
1. Canada
2. United States
Image with
Caption text
Signature and
timestamp (for Talk
Username (talk) 19:50,
15 September 2017 (UTC)
To make a citation
What you type
What you get
Insert a citation
Page text. [], more text.
Page text.[1]
Display citation
1. ^,

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