SOLUTION: The Development of Pigs that Produce Lower Phosphorus Question

SOLUTION: The Development of Pigs that Produce Lower Phosphorus Question.

Planning and Management Perspectives
Chapter 6: Planning and Management
Chapter outline
1. Introduction
2. Planning and Management components
2.1 Context
2.2 Ethics and Values (Ecocentric and Technocentric)
2.3 Systems and Ecosystem perspective
Characteristics of the Ecosystem Approach
Opportunities through the Ecosystem Approach
2.4 Long-Term View
2.5 Environmental Justice (US EPA)
1. Introduction

Principles of effective resource and
environmental management:

Science-based decision-making
Best planning and management approaches
in terms of concepts, processes and methods
2. Planning and Management
2.1 Context

Local people should be included when developing a
strategy or implementing initiatives,
Public agencies often prefer a standardized approach to
problem-solving to avoid criticism based on unequal
treatment- Easiest to Justify
Managers should recognize the specific conditions of a
place and time and design accordingly to be effective,
despite possible criticism
2.2 Ethics and Values:
Ecocentric values (biocentric)

Include a belief that there is a natural order
governing relationships between living things, which
humankind tends to disrupt through ignorance and
Reverence for, humility and responsibility towards,
and stewardship of nature
Similar to biocentric perspective
– biocentric view: resources are seen as having value
independent of human wants and needs.
2.2 Ethics and Values:
Ecocentric values (biocentric)

People with ecocentric values
➢ favour application of low-impact technology
➢ oppose bigness and impersonality in all forms
➢ advocate behaviour consistent with ecological
principles of diversity and change
➢ focus on choosing appropriate ends and using
consistent means
2.2 Ethics and Values:
Technocentric perspective (anthropocentric)

Based on the assumption that humankind is able to
understand, control, and manipulate nature to suit its
purposes (Nature and other living and non-living
things exist to meet human needs and wants)

Similar to anthropocentric perspective
Anthropocentric view: value is dependent on human interests,
wants, and needs.
2.2 Ethics and Values:
Technocentric perspective (anthropocentric)

People with technocentric values tend to
➢ focus more on means than on ends because of
confidence in human ingenuity and rights
➢ be less concerned with morality or consequences of
➢ admire the capacity and power of technology
➢ believe that technology and human inventiveness
will be able to overcome resource shortages and
remediate environmental degradation
2.3 Systems and Ecosystem Perspective

Ecosystems are “subdivisions of the environment
consisting of communities of plants, animals, and
micro-organisms, which depend on air, water, soil
and other non-living elements.” Their management
requires a systems or holistic perspective
The concept of ecosystem was formulated in 1935
by Arthur Tansley
People have been aware of the value of an
ecosystem approach to planning and management
for some time, and using it for decades
Characteristics of the Ecosystem

Slocombe (2010) suggested that the ecosystem
approach has a set of core characteristics:
➢ Systems concepts and analysis
➢ Ethical perspectives
➢ Stakeholder and public participation
➢ A bioregional place-based
➢ Efforts to identify and develop common goals
➢ Gaining a systematic understanding of the
ecosystem of interest
Opportunities through the Ecosystem
Challenges the dominant anthropocentric/
technocentric perspective (environment and natural
resources exist to satisfy human needs- in contrast to ecocentric or
Reminds us to consider management problems and
solutions in the context of linked ‘systems’ (decisions
made about 1 system (land) – consequences for other systems
(water) -in contrast the conventional approach-systems in isolation
from one another)
Demands that the links between natural and economic or social
systems be considered (exceeding thresholds lead to
environmental degradation) e.g. increased agricultural production by
chemicals – make fruits and vegetables unsafe for human consumption.
Opportunities through the Ecosystem
Reminds us that decisions made (or actions taken) at one
place or scale can have implications for other places or
scales (deposit of untreated sewage into a river- e.g. air
pollutants and acid deposition)
Raises questions regarding what is the most appropriate
areal or spatial unit for planning and management (not
political boundaries)- based on environmental functions
watersheds or airsheds have more functional value
Highlights that systems are dynamic or continuously
changing (in short and long terms) (an ecosystem –wetland,
grassland, forest or an urbanizing area , is not static) -transition of
natural grasslands to cropland or farmland to urban land use
Opportunities through the Ecosystem

Overall, the ecosystem approach incorporates the
key ideas that
• humans are part of nature rather than separate
from it
• interrelationships must be emphasized
• critical thresholds exist
Implementing an ecosystem approach requires
adjustments to governance and management
2.4 Long-Term View

In resource and environmental management, it is
important to have:
➢ a short-term view (less than 5 years)
➢ a middle-term view (5 to 15 years)
➢ a long-term view (more than 15 years)
Systems often change slowly (but can change
suddenly as well; adaptability is needed)
A significant period of time may be required to change
behaviour, attitudes, and values
2.4 Long-Term View

Many problems have developed over long time
spans, and can’t be ‘fixed’ or reversed in a few
years; patience is required
Short-term view is caused by

short time between elections and other terms of office
long time frame required to change attitudes
focus on tangible results in short-term
Preoccupation with short-term results prevents longterm commitment of funds and human resources
2.5 Environmental Justice

‘The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of
all people regardless of race, colour, national origin,
or income with respect to the development,
implementation, and enforcement of environmental
laws, regulations and policies’ (US EPA,
Environmental Protection Agency)

e.g., we should not dispose of waste and other LULUs
in less-developed areas or countries (Locally
undesirable land uses, Prison, power plant)
Resource and environmental policy and management
decisions often have public health implications
1. Certain thresholds normally exist in natural systems. When these are
exceeded, ________.
a. ecosystem homeostasis is maintained
b. logging can occur
c. native species usually prosper
d. environmental deterioration can occur
2. Airborne and waterborne pollutants ________.
a. impact upstream communities
b. respect international boundaries
c. tend to remain near their source
d. are mobile
3. The most effective units of environmental management are ________.
a. based on political boundaries
b. based on administrative boundaries
c. global
d. based on environmental functions
4. An ecosystem approach highlights that ecosystems ________.
a. are in balance with human needs
b. do not have long-term changes
c. are dynamic
d. are static
5. In resource and environmental management, ________ is necessary.
a. a short-term view
b. a long-term view
c. a middle-term view
d. All of the above
6. A long-term view for environmental management represents the time span of
a. 50–75 years
b. 15 years or more
c. 5–10 years
d. 100 years or more
7. The “fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless or
race, colour, national origin, or income” with respect to “environmental laws,
regulations and policies” is called ________.
a. environmental equity
b. environmental justice
c. environmental fairness
d. environmental equality
8. LULU stands for ________.
a. limited-use landscape utility
b. leaking underground landfill units
c. low-utility land uses
d. locally unwanted land uses
9. Studies of locations of hazardous waste landfills in the United States found
that three quarters of all such sites are located near ________.
a. agricultural areas
b. wealthy communities
c. minority communities
d. major cities
Planning and Management:
Processes and Methods
Chapter outline
1. Collaboration and Co-ordination
2. Stakeholders and Participatory Approaches
3. Communication
4. Impact and Risk Assessment
4.1 Challenges in Impact Assessment
Types of Initiatives to Be Assessed
Strategic environmental assessment
When Impact Assessments Should Be Done
Determining the Significance of Impacts and Effects
Inadequate Understanding of Ecosystems
5. Dispute Resolution
5.1 Approaches to Handling Disputes
Types of Alternative Dispute Resolution
6. Regional and Land-Use Planning
7. Implications
1. Collaboration and Co-ordination

Collaboration: working together
Collaboration involves exchanging information,
modifying activities in light of others’ needs, sharing
resources, and enhancing the capacity of others to
achieve mutual benefit and realize common goals or
Co-ordination is the effective or harmonious
working together of different departments, groups,
and individuals
1. Collaboration and Co-ordination

Collaboration is needed within, between, and
among organizations
Once collaboration is agreed to, then coordination can take place
Collaboration is increasingly accepted as
desirable, but it is not always accepted or
endorsed by everyone
2.Stakeholders and Participatory
An example of stakeholder engagement and
participatory processes in Canada:
⚫ Manitoba passed its Sustainable Development
Act in 1998

Developed principles and guidelines for sustainable
Public participation was recognized explicitly
Consensus among citizens regarding decisions
affecting them
Degrees of Sharing in DecisionMaking

During the 1980s, dissatisfaction with the
process, methods, and products associated
with many resource and environmental
management decisions began to rise
Out of this situation came the idea that
‘stakeholders’ had a right to participate in
are those who should be included
in decisions because of their direct interest.
⚫ Stakeholders include
1. any public agency with prescribed
management responsibilities
2. all interests significantly affected by a
3. all parties who might intervene in the
decision-making process to facilitate, block,
or delay it
2. Stakeholders and Participatory

The idea of partnerships among governments,
private companies, and the general public has
become increasingly popular
The partnership concept has been implemented
through co-management initiatives and other
approaches that reflect a real redistribution of
power to citizens and away from elected officials
or technical experts
3. Communication

At an international conference focused on ‘climate
change communication’, organizers observed that
communication has three main purposes:

raise awareness;
confer understanding; and
motivate action.
To overcome communication challenges, we must
recognize that a range of target audiences exist,
such as scientists, planners and managers, elected
decision-makers, and the general public
3. Communication

We should ensure that messages are
created with regard to who the target
audience will be and what their level of
understanding is
Important to understand natural and human
systems and their interactions.
Also important to determine how this
knowledge and insight can be shared with
4. Impact and Risk Assessment

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is
the part of the impact assessment that identifies
and predicts the impacts from development
proposals on both the biophysical environment and
on human health and well-being
Risk assessment underlies impact assessment,
since it focuses on determining the probability of an
environmentally or socially negative event of some
specified magnitude, like an oil spill
4. Impact and Risk Assessment

Since risks have to be estimated, calculations may
be incorrect
To address this problem, the precautionary
principle was endorsed in1992
Precautionary principle
In order to protect the environment when there are
risks of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full
scientific certainty regarding the extent or
possibility of risk should not be used as an excuse
for postponing cost effective measures to prevent
environmental degradation
4. Impact and Risk Assessment
• Precautionary principle
o An example of the “precautionary principle” is
acting on something if the bulk of scientific
evidence suggests that action is needed, even if
some knowledge is incomplete
4.1 Challenges in Impact

People conducting impact assessment have to
balance technical matters and value judgments
Impact assessment involves the thorough
consideration of the effects of a project that takes
into account its potential and probable impacts on
the environment and on a society or a community
and that assess the technology proposed for the
project as well as the technology available for
dealing with any negative impacts
Types of Initiatives to Be Assessed

In Canada and most other countries, impact
assessments have primarily been conducted for
infrastructure projects
It has been argued that impact assessments could
and should be completed for policies and programs
– strategic environmental assessment (SEA)
Waiting to conduct an impact assessment until after
a policy or program evolves into a project means
that the assessment may come too late
Strategic environmental assessment (SET)

Strategic environmental assessment focuses
on policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in order
to integrate environmental considerations at the
earliest possible stage of decision-making
SEA occurs before development decisions are
made and when alternative futures and options
for the development are still open
Emphasis is on opportunities, regions, and
sectors as opposed to projects
When Impact Assessments Should Be Done

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) must be
done early in the project planning process
However, EIAs often end up being conducted after the
basic decision regarding whether or not the project will be
carried out
It has become a tool for establishing which mitigation
measures could be used to address negative impacts
Determining the Significance of Impacts and

It is difficult to determine the significance or
implications of impacts and effects
Such a determination may be affected by place and
time, cultural backgrounds, or different ideologies
One of the major challenges in determining
‘significance’ is that the issues in a dispute do not
lend themselves to a monetary valuation; instead,
they are characterized by intangible features
Inadequate Understanding of Ecosystems

The scientific understanding of ecosystems is often
Even the most basic ecological concepts are not without
To address in part the problem of incomplete information
and understanding, Nakashima (1990) argued that more
use should be made of indigenous knowledge or
traditional ecological knowledge (TEK)
Given the incomplete understanding and inadequate data
that is a part of impact assessment, the adaptive
environmental management approach is attractive, as it
emphasizes learning by trial and error and its acceptance
of uncertainty
5. Dispute Resolution

In an environmental context, conflicts may arise as a
result of either substantive or procedural issues
Conflicts over resource management have often
become high-profile news issues in Canada

For example, the dispute between the Six Nations people
and developers in Haldimand Tract in Caledonia
Whether conflict is negative or positive, we should
accept the legitimacy of conflict and recognize that
environmental planning and management can often
serve as a process for resolving conflicts
5.1 Approaches to Handling
Disputes usually centre on three issues:
rights, interests, and power.

traditional way of dealing with disputes are
political, administrative, and judicial
alternative to the judicial approach is
alternative dispute resolution (ADR), which
emphasizes the interests and needs of the
parties involved
Types of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Specific types of ADR include public consultation,
negotiation, mediation, and arbitration
Public consultation involves the concepts of
partnership and stakeholders
Negotiation: Parties involved in a dispute come
together in a voluntary, joint exploration of issues
with the goal of reaching a mutually acceptable
5. Dispute Resolution

Mediation: It is a negotiation process
guided by a facilitator (mediator)
Arbitration differs quite a bit from
negotiation and mediation because it usually
involves stakeholders accepting a third party
who will make a decision on the issues in
6. Regional and Land-Use

Regional and land-use planning represents a
process and a method, and ideally the product (or
plan) reflects a vision of how development should
occur in a region
The context within which a resource management
plan must function can be expected to change
It is important to link resource management plans
to land-use plans, since both sets of plans can be
reviewed and updated at the same time
7. Implications

The approaches discussed in this chapter
represent what many would view as ideals
for resource and environmental
management regarding processes and
Awareness of all of these processes, and
methods, as well as sensitivity to them, will
help to generate diverse ways to define,
frame, and solve problems.
Climate Change
Chapter 8

Topics covered in this chapter:
Weather and climate
Climate change and global warming
Nature of climate change: Natural and
anthropogenetic causes of climate change
Implications of climate change in Canada
Responding to climate change: Mitigation and
adaptation as part of a strategy for reducing
vulnerability to climate change
The Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement
Canada’s role in the global context as a contributor to both
climate change challenges and solutions
Climate is naturally variable
⚫ Over the past 100 years or so, the world’s
climate has changed noticeably
⚫ Much uncertainty and complexity is
associated with climate change

1. Weather and Climate
Refers to short-term (hourly or daily)
fluctuation of atmospheric conditions (air
temperature, humidity, type and amount
cloudiness, type and amount
precipitation, atmospheric pressure, and
wind speed and direction) (elements of
⚫ e.g. cloudy, raining, 10C


In contrast, climate Refers to long-term average
of atmospheric conditions of a specific region or
entire planet, such as:

Temperature (e.g. Winnipeg: monthly mean temperature for July
is 22ºC, January=-18ºC, Vancouver: July 16ºC and Jan. 3ºC.
The global average temperature of the Earth is: 15º C.

However, climate also includes departures from long-term
averages and extremes in weather.

The warmest temperature ever recorded in Winnipeg on
September 10 was 32.4oC in 1998.
2.Climate Change and Global

Climate change is a long-term alteration in the
climate of a particular location, region or for the
entire planet (temperature, clouds, precipitation,
frequency of weather events
(warmer or colder, wetter or drier)
In contrast, global warming addresses changes
only in average surface temperatures, although
these changes are not uniform.
It does not address whether conditions are becoming
wetter or drier.
3. Nature of Climate Change
1. Natural Causes of climate change


Solar output variations (changes in the amount of energy coming from
the sun)
dark spots on sun – lower radiating temperature
bright spots- higher radiating temperature
Orbital variations (obliquity, eccentricity of the orbit, and
precession) Milankovich Hypothesis

Aerosols- Volcanic eruption- (Pinatubo, June 15, 1991) cooling up to 3
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
El Niño, La Niña, La Nada
NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation)
AO (Arctic Oscillation)
Climate variability
Milankovich Hypothesis
Amount of solar radiation received at the Earth’s surface is not
constant over time
Three theoretical variations occur due to:
1. Obliquity: Tilts by 23.5o from the perpendicular to the plane of ecliptic
varies between 21.5o and 24.5o, Period: 41,000 years
– creates seasons
at present, the tilt is decreasing
an obliquity of 0, equal day and night and no seasonal changes.
as the tilt increases, winters become colder and summers become
warmer in both hemispheres.

2. Eccentricity of the earth’s orbit (the shape of the Earth’s
orbit around the sun). The shape of the Earth orbit around the Sun
changes from elliptical to a circular path and then returns to elliptical every
100,000 yrs.
Natural Causes of climate change
Milankovich Hypothesis
3. Precession = Axial precession + Precession of the
⚫ Axial precession (or wobbling): Wobbling movement of
Earth’s axis of rotation, which causes it to point in different
directions over a cycle of 26,000 years.
⚫ Precession of the ellipse is also called “precession of
the equinoxes”. (distance btwn sun – earth)
⚫ The times of solstices and equinoxes move around
Earth’s orbit, completing one cycle (360o) every 23,000
Nature of Climate Change

Natural events, such as volcanoes and El Niño,
are known to have an influence on climate
Volcanoes, eject large quantities of dust and
sulphur particles into the atmosphere, which
reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching
the surface of the Earth
El Niño represents a marked warming of the
waters in the eastern and central portions of the
tropical Pacific that triggers weather changes
and events in two-thirds of the world
Natural Causes of climate change
El Niño – Southern Oscillation (large-scale
interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere)

El Niño (Oceanic phenomenon):

Southern Oscillation (Atmospheric phenomenon):

Anomalous warm water off the west coast of south America
Pressure variability between eastern (South America) and
western tropical Pacific (Australian-Indonesian regions)
Warm (El Niño)
– Cold (La Niña)
– Neutral (La Nada)
“the nothing” in Spanish.
(Like teenagers without
Rules- unpredictable)

An El Niño event (top) and
a La Niña event (bottom)
Following a
amounts of
SO2, HCl and
ash spew into
the Earth’s
Nature of Climate Change
2. Anthropogenetic causes

While there are naturally caused variations in
climate, it is increasingly apparent that
climatic change is occurring more rapidly
than ever before as a result of human
Humans have increased greenhouse
gases concentrations in the troposphere.
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
nitrous oxide (N2O), tropospheric ozone
(O3), chlorofluorocarbon (CFC’s)
Annual mean temperature anomaly –Global (1850-2020)
© Four phases:

Stable cool period:1850 to 1909
Rapid rise: 1910-1945
Slight decrease: 1946-1975
Rapid rise: 1976 to 2020
Four phases:
▪Stable cool period:1850 to 1909
▪Rapid rise: 1910-1945
▪Slight decrease: 1946-1975
▪Rapid rise: 1976 to 2020

Average annual global temperature anomaly (1880-2019) compared to long-term average (1901-2000).
The zero line represents the long-term average temperature for the whole planet, blue and red bars show
the difference below or above average for each year.
Source data:
Scientific Evidence Related to
Climate Change

The following statements are supported by solid
scientific evidence:
The world has been warming
➢ Greenhouse gas emissions have been rising for
several decades( CO2, CH4, N2O and tropospheric
➢ Glaciers have lost more mass than they have gained
➢ Reduced snow cover has been documented, as well
as earlier spring melting of ice on rivers and lakes
➢ Total sea ice in Canada has been declining each
➢ Measurements show that permafrost is warming in
many regions. Over one-half of Canada is underlain
17 by permafrost

Scientific Evidence Related to Climate
➢ The
increase in the average temperature
of the northern hemisphere during the
20th century was the largest of any
century in the past 1,000 years
➢ The average rate of sea-level rose from
0.1 to 0.2 mm/year during the past 3,000
years to 1 – 2 mm/ year in the 20th
century, a tenfold increase, and
➢ traditional environmental knowledge all
indicate that climate change is occurring
The forest industry is a major contributor to the rising levels of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not only through
deforestation, but also through emissions from processing
Some countries, such as the Maldives in the Indian
Ocean, are so low-lying that they could be mostly
flooded as early as early as 2050 if global sea levels
rise as predicted
Fossil fuel combustion
is the primary cause for
climate change
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
nitrous oxide (N2O), tropospheric ozone
(O3), chlorofluorocarbon (CFC’s), H2Ov
Figure 8.2 : The greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse Effect

Earth’s surface emit infrared energy back
toward space

Greenhouse gases (including water vapor)
absorb the outgoing infrared energy and
trap heat close to the Earth’s surface.

This warms up the troposphere and the
Earth’s surface

Humans have increased concentrations of
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
Sources of Greenhouse Gases

Carbon Dioxide – fossil-fuel burning

– ruminants, rice paddies
Nitrous Oxide

Atmospheric levels increasing steadily
Most important cause of warming
burning organic material
Using inorganic fertilizers
Sources of Greenhouse Gases

Tropospheric Ozone

Pollutants emitted by cars, power and
chemical plants and industrial boilers

Air conditioners
Aerosol sprays
• All ghg absorb more infrared radiation than
Global Warming effects

More extreme weather; droughts, floods, heat waves and
These extremes have increased significantly in the last
Sea level has risen 6 to 8 inches in last century.
If we do nothing, Greenland’s ice will melt and raise sea
levels 20 ft.
South Pacific island nation of Tuvalu already abandoned
due to climate change
Global warming effects

Growing seasons- lengthening in Northern
Some animals are breeding earlier or extending their
range. Others are disappearing.
Droughts are more frequent and widespread
Storms more severe.
Infectious diseases will increase. Why?

Insects that spread them are able to move to places where
they could not live before.
West Nile, malaria, and dengue fever have appeared in
North America.
Modelling Climate Change

The uncertainty associated with global
climate is encouraging scientists to
explore many different ways of assessing
past and future climates
One approach is climate modelling
Climate models are computer codes,
which are used to test the validity of a
proposed hypotheses and to predict
future climate change
Climate Models
climate models consider some or all of five
components in order to predict future climates:
1. Radiation
2. Energy Dynamics
3. Surface processes
4. Chemistry
5. Time step and resolution
Four types of Climate Models

Energy balance models (0-D model), which
gives one temperature for Earth
One-Dimensional Radiative-Convective
Model (RCM) (latitude or height)
Two-dimensional Statistical-Dynamics (SD)
Climate Models (latitude and height)
General Circulation Models (GCMs)
– Ocean
– Vegetation GCMs
Limitations of General Circulation Models

While GCMs provide overall indications of future
climates, their limitations for policy and planning
need to be appreciated
Many scientists have recognized that the coarse
spatial resolution, poor predictive capacity for
precipitation, fairly weak simulation of oceans,
lack of baseline data, and many other limitations
cause GCM outputs to be highly variable
Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate change (IPCC)

Climate change is the most important environmental issue
of our time
IPCC was established in 1988 by the World
Meteorological Organization and the United Nations
Environmental Program
IPCC assessments are based on peer-reviewed and
published scientific literature
Assessments reports were published in 1991, 1995, 2001,
2007 and in 2014 the IPCC released its fifth report.
Reports are published every 6 to 7 years
AR6 Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis.
Sixth assessment report due for release in 2021.
Scientific Explanations

In its 2007 report, the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change concluded that worldwide trends in
the 20th century consistently and strongly reveal
an increase in global surface temperature
There is strong scientific consensus that the
increase in greenhouse gases has been caused by
human activities
Two special reports were released in 2018 & 2019
Natural and human variables both contribute to
climate change, but it is hard to figure out their
relative contribution, as they both typically operate
at the same time
Latest IPCC on global warming
(March 31, 2014)

The world is warming up, especially the Arctic.
Arctic sea ice is declining faster than models
projected. Could be clear of sea ice in summer
within the next few decades
4. Implications of Climate Change
in Canada

Terrestrial Systems

It is possible that within your lifetime, many terrestrial
systems, along with the associated fauna and flora,
will change significantly
National and provincial parks, which were created to
protect representative ecosystems, may disappear
or greatly change as the distinctive ecosystems
currently protected by such parks evolve into
something completely different

4. Implications of Climate Change
Terrestrial systems

Canadian Prairies, boreal forests may shift
up to 700 km to the north, to be replaced by
In the Arctic, the southern permafrost border
could move 500 km northward
Boreal forests would be affected by
increases in insect infestation, disease and
Changes forest
and grassland
resulting from a
doubled CO2
4. Implications of Climate Change
Terrestrial systems

Polar bears may no longer remain to breed in
Wapusk National Park in MB
Marmot in the Rockies is likely to thrive since
expansion of preferred habitat
4. Implications of Climate Change

One of the major limitations on agricultural activity in most
areas of Canada is the cold climate
Canada could actually benefit from global warming, since it
would extend the growing season and reduce damage
from severe cold .There is no scientific consensus as to whether
Canada would benefit from global warming.

Challenges may also arise
– Plants are vulnerable to heat and drought
– Water may become limited
Significant effects on food production in other regions of the
world -affect the poorest farmers. Could cause regional
instability and international migration (“environmental”
Agriculture – contributes for eutrophication
and increase in methane levels
4. Implications of Climate Change
Marine and Freshwater Systems

Every part of Canada except the southern Prairies
has become wetter, with precipitation increasing
16% between 1950 and 2010.
Generally higher temperatures cause higher rates
of evapotranspiration, increasing surface drying
and more moisture in the air.
Changes in precipitation can have a range of
impacts on freshwater and marine systems
including variability in streamflow of rivers and in
lake levels.
4. Implications of Climate Change

Fish are vulnerable to changes in temperature,
precipitation, wind patterns, and chemical condition.
⚫ Warmer water in freshwater systems would
enhance conditions for warm-water fish but create
additional stress for cold-water fish
•Fish migration to more suitable waters – competition
⚫Higher temperatures and increased evapotranspiration
could also lower water levels in lakes, and one result
would be degradation of shoreline wetlands that provide
46 key habitat for some species of fish.
4. Implications of Climate Change

Warmer temperatures in higher latitudes are
expected to cause melting of ice, such as the
Greenland ice sheet
As ice in the Arctic melts, there will be
consequences, such as a rise in sea levels
4. Implications of Climate Change
In the Rockies, glaciers less than 100 m thick
could disappear by 2030.
⚫ These glaciers provide water to the rivers
across the Prairie provinces
Concerns of melting ice:
⚫ Decreased polar bear populations
⚫ Degradation of permafrost in alpine and highlatitude regions could change the hydrology in
northern regions

Glacial retreat of the Athabasca
Glacier, 1992 – 2005
4. Implications of Climate Change
Ocean and Coastal Systems

It appears that both sea temperatures and
sea levels will increase
This will affect coastal communities, such as
those in Prince Edward Island
Wave actions on shorelines will contribute to
erosion and to changes in wetland
Changes are likely to have significant
impacts on the chemical composition of
oceanic waters – warm water holds more
dissolved carbon, increases acidity
4. Implications of Climate Change
Infectious Diseases
Canadians can expect to experience a
greater incidence of diseases
⚫ This includes infectious diseases such
as Lyme disease, dengue fever, West
Nile virus, and malaria
– Insects that spread them are able to
move to places where they could not
live before.

Communicating Global Climate

Challenges for communicating information or
understanding about climate change:
1. Global climate change is a complex issue
2. Uncertainties exist regarding almost every aspect of
the climate change issue, and these uncertainties
increase when moving from natural to human
3. The impacts of climate change will be heavier on
people in less developed countries and on future
4. The basic causes of climate change are embedded
in current values and lifestyles
5. Responding to Climate Change
Policy and Action Options

Regarding climate change, there is strong
agreement on several matters related to
policy and action:

International collaborative action will be required,
since climate change is a shared problem
A mix of strategies will be required, including both
mitigation and adaptation
5. Responding to Climate Change:

Mitigation involves reducing emissions of GHGs,

which in turn will limit future temperature changes
A mix of options exist:
➢ Carbon
tax would be levied on countries based on
their generation of GHGs (e.g. gasoline)
➢ New
⚫ Finding
alternatives to fossil-fuel combustion.
E.g. hydro-generated electricity, ethanol fuels,
wind-based energy, energy from renewable
5. Responding to Climate Change
➢ Carbon
⚫ Carbon can be sequestered in biological
Land use practices that encourage agricultural
crops and forest systems with capacity to
sequester carbon are a legitimate way for nations
to achieve GHG emission reduction targets

5. Responding to Climate Change


Intent is to reduce the greenhouse effect and thereby
reduce global warming through systematic largescale manipulation of the Earth’s climate

Examples can involve carbon sequestration by direct
(capture of CO2 from the air) or indirect (iron
fertilization of oceans) approaches
Smaller scale approaches includes “cool roof” projects
and tree planting
5. Responding to Climate Change

Given that there will be negative impacts
(associated with climate change), we need to
develop adaptation strategies so that
adversely affected activities and regions can
create capacity for resilience.
Communities reliant on irrigation for crop
production in northern Chile are having to adapt to
reduced water supplies as the alpine glaciers shrink
Families in coastal Nigeria are having to adapt to loss
of food sources and livelihoods as fish stocks have
moved with changing ocean temperature
5. Responding to Climate Change
International Climate Policy and Actions
is strong agreement that international
collaborative action is required, since climate change
is a shared problem.
⚫The challenge is that each national government may
be reluctant to take the “first step” for fear that it might
become less economically competitive with other
5. Responding to Climate Change
International Climate Policy and Actions

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement reached
in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 that targets 38 developed
nations as well as the European Community to ensure
that their emissions of six greenhouse gases (GHGs) do
not exceed their assigned amounts

Canada’s goal was to reduce greenhouse emissions
to 6% below 1990 levels by between 2008 and 2012.

Ratified the Protocol in December 2002
Delegates from more than 160 countries at
the conference in Kyoto, Japan, that led to
the Kyoto Protocol, December 1997
Kyoto Protocol identifies Six
greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Hydroflorocarbons (HFCs)
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
Main GHG produced by
human activities
Produce in small
➢The assigned emissions do not include carbon
fluxes from forests, soil, and other carbon reservoirs
Canada’s Initial Approach to
Implementing the Kyoto Protocol

Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002
without a clear plan on how it would be
implemented in Canada
US President George W. Bush stated that the
US would not sign the Kyoto agreement but
would reduce greenhouse gas intensity
Canada pulled out of the Kyoto Protocol in 2011,
(emissions had increased by ~ 20% relative to
the base year of 1990)
Was effectively replaced by the Paris
5. Responding to Climate Change
International Climate Policy and Actions
Paris Agreement
Commits the signatory parties to reduce GHG emissions
and keep mean global temperature increases to within 2°C
(below 1.5°C)

Provides mechanisms to support poorer countries to
reduce their GHG emissions and aims for a carbon-free
world before 2100

In 2019, President Trump removed US from the

5. Responding to Climate Change
Domestic Approach to Climate Change
Federal Responses

Missing is the government’s continued support and
promotion of oil and gas exploration, extraction, and export.

Canada has implemented the Pan-Canadian Framework
on Clean Growth and Climate Change which has 4 pillars:
1. Pricing carbon pollution
2. Other actions to reduce GHG emissions
3. Adaptation and climate resilience
4. Clean technology, innovation, and jobs
6. Implications

Concerted and coordinated initiatives by provinces,
states, and nations will be necessary to reduce the
negative impacts of global climate change.
2018 IPCC report points out that 14.5% of global GHG
emissions are from livestock and this number is
increasing rapidly
A change in one person’s behaviour will not have a
major impact. However, cumulatively, many individual
actions can be significant.
The challenge will be to decide whether we are prepared
to change our behaviour, so future generations can gain
the benefits
Chapter 8: Oceans and Fisheries
Oceans and Fisheries
Oceans and Fisheries

Chapter outline include
Oceanic ecosystems
Ocean management challenges
Global responses
Canada’s ocean and fisheries
1. Introduction

The major challenges faced by society today are
global and transnational.

Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas
Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean, 2018.

They are very difficult to solve because they need nations
to act in ways that, over the short term, may yield little
direct advantage to them

First time an agreement has been reached. Agreement
explicitly acknowledges the need for a clearer
understanding of the impacts of fishing prior to allowing
While sea ice used to prevent fishing in this area, this is no
longer the case
2. Oceanic Ecosystems

The oceans and their well-being are integral
to sustaining life on this planet
They are key components in global cycles
and energy flows
One of the major difficulties working against
sustainable human use of the oceans is our
lack of understanding of oceanic ecosystems
2. Oceanic Ecosystems

On land, water is the most common limiting factor for life.
In the oceans most limiting factor is nutrients
Ocean’s productivity is limited to the areas where
nutrients are abundant
Most productive areas are
– Coastal zones
– Upwellings from deep ocean return nutrients to the
surface layers
Other limiting factors are temperature and light- both
decrease with depth
2. Oceanic Ecosystems

Surface waters in the euphotic zone are
warmer and have higher light levels,
resulting in higher productivity.

There is usually a sharp transition in
temperature between the warmer surface
waters and the cooler waters underneath
(known as the thermocline and generally
occurs at a depth of 120 to 240 metres).
2. Oceanic Ecosystems

The deepest part of the ocean is more than
9,000 metres deep, but more than threequarters of the ocean is between 4,000 and
6,000 metres deep.

Most productivity is on the continental
shelves at a depth of less than 200 metres,
and especially within the top 100 metres.
Most fisheries are concentrated in these areas
2. Oceanic Ecosystems

The carbon balance in oceanic ecosystems
is now the subject of a lot of scientific
research because of the importance of the
oceans in absorbing carbon dioxide, a GHG,
and the role it may play in mitigating the
impact of global climate change.
Acidification occurs when water and CO2 mix
to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid
releases hydrogen ions (H+), which
increases the acidity of the water.
The ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle
2. Oceanic Ecosystems
Thermohaline circulation

Currently, oceans are about 30 per cent more
acidic compared to pre-industrial times.

Acidification is already having severe impacts on
some fisheries in Canada.
The carbon-saturated water moves around the
globe, called thermohaline circulation, mainly
as a result of differing water densities.

Movement of subsurface water in the ocean as a
result of density contrast caused by differences in
temperature and salinity.
2. Oceanic Ecosystems
Thermohaline circulation or conveyor belt

This sinking is the main mechanism for the removal
of atmospheric C by the oceans
Melting of polar ice caps due to global warming will
reduce density in sea water and make thermohaline
circulation weaker –shutdown of this circulation
could trigger a new ice age.
The global ocean conveyor
2. Oceanic Ecosystems
Coral reefs – the rain forests of the sea

Coral reefs are among the most diverse and
productive ecosystems on Earth
Coral reefs are made up of countless number of
individual coral polyps held together by calcium
carbonate (CaCO3)
Photosynthetic algae (zooxantheliae) lives inside
coral’s skeletons- produce food for corals
When water temperatures get too warm, the
zooxantheliae are often expelled- coral bleaching
happens (death of the corals)
Healthy coral reefs are very complex
structures that take centuries to develop and
may last for thousands of years
Coral bleaching
3. Ocean Management Challenges

The main management challenges facing
ocean ecosystems are a result of fisheries
pollution, coastal development, climate
change and other human activities.
3. Ocean Management Challenges

The most important fishing grounds in the
world are found on and along continental
shelves within less than 370 kms of the shore.

Fisheries supply some 20% of the world’s
annual animal protein supply
Fish populations are declining, and the fish
being caught are smaller than those caught in
the past

3. Ocean Management Challenges:

As the recipient of all the polluted water that flows
off the land as well as airborne contaminants, the
oceans are the ultimate sink for many pollutants
Chemical pollutants take two main forms: toxic
materials and nutrients
One rapidly emerging impact relating to pollution is
endocrine disruption
Endocrine system
3. Ocean Management Challenges:

endocrine disruption: is the interference of
normal bodily processes such as sex,
metabolism, and growth by chemicals in
such products as soaps and detergents that
are released into an ecosystem, as happens
among aquatic species, often causing
Hermaphroditic fish are appearing all over
Europe and in the Great Lakes
3. Ocean Management Challenges

Oxygen depletion occurs as a result of nutrient
enrichment, and leads to large dead areas within
the oceans
These areas (hypoxic or oxygen-deficient areas)
have multiplied 10-fold near coastal areas since the
1950s, while anoxic areas (where there is no
oxygen) have quadrupled in size since 1950
Their growth could also promote the development of
far more male fish than female, threatening some
species with extinction
3. Ocean Management Challenges

Global warming will promote the growth of dead
zones—as water warms, it holds less oxygen.
Plastics are also an increasing source of concern,
even in more isolated areas such as the Canadian
Arctic, where 84% of fulmars (seabirds) have
plastic in their stomachs
Globally, the use of plastics has
been on the rise.
3. Ocean Management Challenges

The main sources of marine toxic pollution in
Canada are the deposition of airborne pollutants
from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural runoff,
inadequately treated sewage, and by-products or
waste materials from refining processes

Many Indigenous people in Canada’s North have
bioaccumulated high levels of toxins in their bodies
because of their reliance on marine mammals.
3. Ocean Management Challenges

World demand for energy, particularly oil and
gas, continues to rise

Many of the world’s main oilfields are situated
in sedimentary basins under the oceans.

There is potential for spillage at every stage;
many seabirds and marine organisms are highly
vulnerable to oil pollution.
3. Ocean Management Challenges
Coastal development
⚫ 21 of the world’s 33 mega-cities are coastal
⚫ Environmental decision-making and
management within the coastal zone are
often highly fragmented among different
⚫ Half of the countries in the world do not have
any coastal legislation to address their
highly degraded coastal environments
Coastal mega-cities, like Mumbai, India, place marine
ecosystems under increasing pressures, resulting in issues
such as coastal erosion, intrusion of sea water into freshwater
supplies, loss of habitat for birds, fish, and other marine
wildlife, depletion of fishery resources, and marine pollution
3. Ocean Management Challenges
Climate Change

As a result of global warming, sea levels rose almost
250mm between 1870 and 2013
⚫ The rate of global sea level rise has accelerated
in recent years
Changes in water temperature could cause
widespread destruction of coral reef ecosystems
or slow or shut down the thermohaline circulation
⚫ increased risk of hypoxia in deep ocean
3. Ocean Management Challenges
Climate Change

The Arctic Ocean is one of the most sensitive
indicators of global climate change.
Scientists are predicting an ice-free Arctic by the
end of the century.
Changes in ice conditions are critical for some
species, especially those that rely upon ice
coverage for foraging and breeding
4. Global Responses
International Agreements
⚫ Strong international action can help address
these problems
⚫ The overall international legal framework is
provided by the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which came into
force in 1994
5. Canada’s Oceans and Fisheries

Canada has the longest coastline of any
country and the second largest continental
The lead agency is the Department of
Fisheries and Oceans (DFO)
Canada’s coastline and continental shelf
Marine Ecozones
➢Pacific Marine
➢Arctic Basin
➢Arctic Archipelago
➢Northwest Atlantic
Figure 9.10

Canada has some of the most productive
marine environments in the world
The Fisheries Act is federal legislation that
was established to manage and protect
Canada’s fisheries resources
The Act is outdated and a new Act has been
formulated but not yet approved by
areas in
Figure 9.11
6. Aquaculture

One response to the declining catch in wild
fisheries is to produce more seafood through
farming or aquaculture
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food
production sector in the world and accounts for
nearly half of the fish produced worldwide.
Serious concerns exist about aquaculture:
• escapement, disease, lice, pollution, predator
control, energetics, social dimensions, human
health, genetic modification
Small fish farm on the Broughton
archipelago, Vancouver Island, BC
A typical salmon farm consists of 10 to 30 cages, each 12 or 15 m
square, and contains on average 20,000 fish
Chapter 10: Forests

Chapter outline include
An overview of Canada’s forests
Forest management practices
Environmental and social impacts of forest
management practices
1. Introduction

Forest ecosystems are an integral part of
the global ecosystem, providing clean air
and water, improving biodiversity, and
helping to combat climate change.

However, the extent of forests around the
world is decreasing
2. An Overview of Canada’s

The forests are home to a wide diversity of
terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Canada has 9 per cent of the world’s forests,
and these forests cover about 35 per cent of
the nation’s land area

Canada has one-quarter of the world’s
temperate rain forests and one-quarter of the
world’s boreal forests
Forest composition in Canada
2. An Overview of Canada’s

Disturbance of forests in Canada is a serious concern.


The permanent conversion of forests to other land uses.
• In Canada, the main process is conversion to
agricultural land, with conversion to oil and gas use
being the next main factor and the most rapidly
• 37,000 hectares of Canada’s forest are lost annually

Forest degradation by unsustainable harvesting
Insects and wildfires

2. An Overview of Canada’s Forests
Canada’s Boreal Forest

The Boreal is Canada’s largest ecozone, covering
almost 58 per cent of the country’s land mass and
stretching through all provinces except PEI, Nova
Scotia, and New Brunswick The area is
dominated by coniferous forests, particularly
spruce. Taiga is a Russian word used to
describe coniferous forests

Boreal is a term that means ‘of the North’; it comes
originally from the Greek god of the north wind,
2. An Overview of Canada’s Forests
Canada’s Boreal Forest

The boreal forests also support commercial
activities such as logging, wood fibre, and sawlog
production, pulp and paper mills, and fibreboard
Almost 50 per cent of the boreal forest is currently
allocated to industry
Canada’s boreal forest produces over $700 billion
of ecosystem services to the world every year
2. An Overview of Canada’s Forests
Forest Ecosystem Services and Products

Canada’s forest ecosystems provide a variety
of beneficial services arising from ecological
functions such as nutrient and water cycling,
carbon sequestration, and waste decomposition
It is estimated that 20 per cent of the world’s
water originates in Canada’s forests; the forests
are also major carbon sinks
Forests contain beautiful scenery, and millions of
Canadians travel each year to participate in
nature-related recreational activities
2. An Overview of Canada’s Forests
Forest Ecosystem Services and Products

Timber forest products provide substantial
economic benefits;
Canada is the world’s fourth-largest forest product
exporter and the leading exporter of softwood lumber
and newsprint.
Forestry industry is the largest single contributor to
Canada’s balance of trade, with exports totaling over
$35.7 billion in 2017 (US is the largest buyer of
Canadian forest products)
2. An Overview of Canada’s Forests
Forest Ecosystem Services and Products

Non-timber forest products (NFTPs) Wild rice,
mushrooms and berries, maple syrup, edible
nuts, furs and hides, medicines, ornamental
cuttings, and seeds are collectively known as
non-timber forest products (NTFPs)
Have the potential to generate $1 billion per
year for the Canadian economy
3. Forest Management Practices

Provincial governments are responsible for 77%
of the nation’s forests.
Federal and territorial governments for 1.6% and
13 %
Indigenous peoples own and manage 2%
Remaining 6% managed by 450,000 private
3. Forest Management Practices
Rate of Conversion, Harvesting methods, Reforestation, site
preparation-Biocide use, Intensive forest management, fire suppression
Rate of Conversion

The rate of conversion of natural to managed
forests is one of the most controversial issues in
Canadian forestry
Each province establishes an annual allowable
cut (AAC), the amount of timber that is allowed
to be cut annually from a specified area
3. Forest Management Practices
Harvesting Methods

Clear-cutting: Removing all trees in a single cut
a dominant forest harvesting practice that
has caused a great deal of conflict in Canada
An entire stand of trees is felled and removed
Clear-cuts are aesthetically unappealing to
many Canadians, and their environmental
impact can be substantial
Clear-cutting Forests:
▪Higher timber yields
▪Maximum profits in
shortest time
▪Can reforest with fast-growing trees
▪Good for tree species needing full
or moderate sunlight
Clear-cutting Forests:
▪Reduces biodiversity
▪Destroys and fragments
wildlife habitats
▪Increases water pollution, flooding,
and erosion on steep slopes
3. Forest Management Practices:

Until 1985, Canada’s forests were considered to be
so extensive that little effort was given to
In 2016, 0.76 million hectares of land were harvested,
15.5 million hectares were affected by insects, and
3.4 million hectares were burned by fire, yet only
410,000 hectares were planted and reseeded
Success of these plantings cannot be guaranteed,
and problems of reduced biodiversity from replanting
programs have been identified
3. Forest Management Practices
Site Preparation—Biocide Use
⚫ Biocides are used on forest lands in Canada to
reduce competition for seedlings on replanted
sites and to protect seedlings from insect
⚫ The health and ecological concerns arising from
widespread application of chemicals have led to
several high-profile confrontations
3. Forest Management Practices
Site Preparation—Biocide Use
o Herbicide application may also eliminate
species that are ecologically advantageous,
such as nitrogen fixers like the red alder,
exacerbating nutrient loss from logged
o Insecticides are used to attack pests
▪ Attention is being increasingly directed
toward replacing synthetic insecticides
with biological control agents
3. Forest Management Practices
Intensive Forest Management

Future timber resource values can be enhanced by
intensive practices include pre-commercial thinning,
commercial thinning, scarification, prescribed
burning, pruning and shearing, and timber stand
Fire Suppression

In certain areas, fire is a frequent occurrence and
necessary to the reproduction of forest tree species
How do fires affect forests?

Benefits of occasional
surface fires

Prevent larger fires
Release minerals
Control insects
Habitat maintenance
4. Environmental and Social Impacts
of Forest Management Practices
Forestry and Site Fertility
⚫ Forest harvesting removes nutrients from the
harvested site.
Forestry and Climate Change
⚫ A warmer climate speeds up vegetation growth,
which means more carbon storage.

Also accelerates decomposition, resulting in more
carbon emissions, and boosts the risk of drought, pest
outbreaks, and fire, all of which can significantly
reduce carbon storage

Chapter outline include
Agriculture as an ecological process
Agriculture and climate change
Modern farming systems in the industrialized
Environmental challenges for Canadian
1. Introduction

Agriculture is a dominant influence on the global
The origins of agriculture date back 9,000–
11,000 years to a few regions where societies
domesticated both plant and animal species.
Societies around the globe flourished by
improving their capacity to expand agricultural
1. Introduction

There are three kinds of agricultural land:
Arable land (14,237,943 km2)

Permanent cropland (1,662,007 km2)

Where crops (such as coffee, tea, potatoes, fruit) do
not require annual replanting
Permanent pastures (32,768,636 km2)

Occupied by crops that require annual replanting (peas,
corn, watermelon, common wheat)
Used primarily for grazing livestock
1. Introduction

Approximately one third of the land area of
the world is used for agricultural purposes.
Intensification of production, or getting more
output from a given area of agricultural land,
has become a key development strategy in
most parts of the world
Feeding the current world population remains
a significant challenge
1. Introduction

People are considered undernourished if
their caloric intake is less then 90 per cent of
the recommended level for their size and
activity level. e.g., an adult woman needs
about 2,000 calories per day.

Agriculture is basically an ecological process
as solar radiation is converted through one of
more transformations into human food
2. Agriculture as an Ecological

Agriculture is a food chain, with humans as
the ultimate consumers
The second law of thermodynamics is
important to agricultural food chains—the
longer the food chain, the greater the energy

One of the arguments for a vegetarian diet—by
eating at the lowest level on the food chain as
herbivores, humans will maximize the amount of
usable energy in the food system.
3. Agriculture and Climate Change

The domestication of plants and animals
thousands of years ago led to profound changes
to the global land base
One of the most significant impacts of industrial
agriculture is in the concentration of greenhouse
gasses (GHGs) in the atmosphere
There are many opportunities to reduce the
contributions of agriculture to global warming,
but an obvious one is to reduce the numbers of
livestock by eating less meat, no-tillage
to Canadian cropland changing
from a ghg source to a ghg sink.
3. Agriculture and Climate Change

Since cultivation began, up to 30 per cent of the
carbon originally present in the surface soil
layer has been lost.
Some agriculturally productive regions of
Canada are now acting as a carbon sink, mainly
due to recovery of previously carbon-depleted
soils through improvements in farming
techniques (no-till agriculture, planting
perennial crops).
3. Agriculture and Climate Change

CO2 is not the only GHG affected by land use
change—fertilizers have a significant impact and
soil organic matter

While carbon emissions from the agricultural
sector have been declining in Canada, nitrous
oxide (N2O) emissions increased mainly due to
the increased use of fertilizers.

Livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep, goats) is also a
significant source, particularly of CH4 and N2O.
3. Agriculture and Climate Change

Agriculture accounts for 8-10% of Canada’s GHG
While agricultural activity can contribute to increased
greenhouse gas emissions, in turn, global climate
change also affects food production.
– Climate change will likely increase the area suitable
for agricultural production in some countries,
especially in northern latitudes, but lead to declines
elsewhere, particularly in the tropics where future
food demand will be the highest.

The negative effects are likely to be particularly
pronounced in less developed countries
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World

Dramatic changes in food production systems have
occurred through various technological advances
influenced in turn by changes in demographics
(increases in population densities), social structure,
and economic conditions.

Early food production systems were small scale and
largely dictated by fixed environmental conditions—
today, local conditions are manipulated to improve
both the quantity and quality of outputs.
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Green Revolution

Refers to technological advances designed to
increase the productivity of agricultural lands
including chemical pesticides, auxiliary energy
flows in the form of fertilizers, hybridization,
higher-yield seeds (e.g., shorter maturation,
drought resistance), genetic engineering, more
complex irrigation systems, and modern farming
equipment (e.g., tractors for plowing and seed
sowing, mechanized food processing).
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Green Revolution

The development and commercialization of
higher-yielding seeds through hybridization led
to significant grain yields throughout the world
Hybridization is the crossbreeding of two
varieties or species of plants and animals
The development of genetically modified
organisms (GMOs) involves combining genes
from different and often totally unrelated species
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Green Revolution
⚫ The reliance on large auxiliary energy flows in
modern industrialized agricultural systems is
one of the main differences between natural and
⚫ Subsistence farming is the production of food
and other necessities to satisfy the needs of the
farm household
⚫ Although agriculture is not Canada’s largest
user of water, it is its largest consumer
Horse power one form of auxiliary energy used in
agricultural production, environmental impacts are
much less than those resulted from fossil-fuelled
Irrigation water is critical for production
crops on much of Canada’s landscape.
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Green Revolution

Fertilizer and biocides are also important inputs to
modern farming systems
A central strategy in improving agricultural output is
to limit losses from the effects of pests and diseases
and from weed competition
Without the input of fertilizers, the soil would become
depleted and unable to produce further crops
Biocide use continues to rise dramatically, indicating
that farmers find biocides cost-effective from a
production perspective
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Biofuel Revolution

Biofuels are solids, liquids, or gases that have
been derived from plants and other organic
material and are processed into an oil that acts as
a petroleum replacement.

They have great potential to help curb global
GHG, reduce foreign oil dependency, lower fuel
prices, increase income for farmers, provide new
4. Modern Farming Systems in the
Industrialized World
The Livestock Revolution

The Livestock Revolution refers to the shift in
production units from family farms to factory farms
and feedlots (meat consumption has doubled since
As the livestock industry expands and becomes
more intensive, health and environmental concerns
over livestock manure are growing
5. Environmental Challenges for
Canadian Agriculture

7% of Canada’s total land area is agricultural
The agricultural and agri-food sector is a $110billion industry, exporting more than $64 billion in
products annually
o Wheat, canola, corn, barley, and soybean are
the dominant crops grown in Canada
o Canada is particularly self-sufficient for meat,
dairy (including eggs), breads, and cereals
5. Environmental Challenges for
Canadian Agriculture
Land Degradation
Land degradation includes a number of processes
that reduce the capability of agricultural lands to
produce food:
⚫ Soil erosion is a natural process whereby soil is
removed from its place of formation by gravitational,
water, and wind processes
⚫ Soil compaction is the compression of soil as a
result of frequent heavy machinery use on wet soils or
the overstocking of cattle on the land

5. Environmental Challenges for
Canadian Agriculture
Soil Acidification: Acidity in soils can also be augmented
by fallout from acid precipitation and the use of fertilizers
⚫ Salinization is the deposit of salts in irrigated soils,
making soil unfit for most crops; caused by a rising water
table due to inadequate drainage of irrigated soils
⚫ Summer fallow is a practice common on the Prairies in
which land is kept bare to minimize moisture losses
through evapotranspiration but which leads to increased
⚫ Organic Matter and Nutrient Losses; Cultivation involves a

continuous removing plant matter from a field, which is critical for
maintaining the structure of the soil, influencing water filtration,
facilitating aeration, and providing the capacity to support machinery
Large areas of tilled soil are
vulnerable to erosion
Conventional vs conservation
Conventional tillage (normal tilling/plowing of
land before seeding)
Increases soil erosion
Increase moisture loss
Lead to soil compaction
Conventional vs conservation

Conservation tillage – disturbing the soil as
little as possible
⚫ Minimum tillage
⚫ Zero tillage
– Minimizes soil erosion
– Conserve soil moisture
– Reduce compaction.
– no-tillage agriculture has led to Canadian
cropland changing from a ghg source to a
ghg sink.
5. Environmental Challenges for
Canadian Agriculture

Biocides are chemicals that kill many different kinds
of living things, they are also called pesticides
But scientific evidence indicates that many
chemicals have profound negative impacts on
Possible environmental and health impacts may be
delayed (decades)
Primary responsibility in Canada for regulating
biocides is held by the federal government.
The burrowing owl is an endangered species that
has been threatened by the use of agricultural
biocides (carbofuran)
Thank you
Question 1 (1 point)
Agriculture accounts for ________ of Canada’s GHGs emissions.
Question 1 options:
5-7 per cent
0-3 per cent
15-20 per cent
8-10 per cent
Question 2 (1 point)
Canada’s boreal forest produces ________ worth of ecosystem
services annually.
Question 2 options:
$500 million
$200 billion
$700 billion
$10 trillion
Question 3 (1 point)
The development of pigs that produce lower phosphorus manure is
the outcome of ________.
Question 3 options:
the use of biocides
genetic modification
the Green Revolution
Question 4 (1 point)
Endocrine disrupters have been found ________.
Question 4 options:
to cause no physical changes to aquatic species
to increase human male sperm counts
All of the above
in commonly used products such as soap
Question 5 (1 point)
The ecosystem approach ________.
Question 5 options:
examines the different parts of the ecosystem individually
All of these
is often based on political boundaries, making it less
understands that humans are part of nature, not separate from it
Question 6 (1 point)
Generally, nutrient concentrations ________ with depth because of
the decomposition of organisms falling from the surface layer.
Question 6 options:
does not change
Question 7 (1 point)
In the Rockies, glaciers less than 100 metres thick could disappear
by ________.
Question 7 options:
Question 8 (1 point)
Soil erosion rate is affected by ________.
Question 8 options:
the amount of natural vegetation
the wind speed
all of these
the speed of surface water flow
Question 9 (1 point)
Oceanic productivity typically ________ with depth.
Question 9 options:
does not change
Question 10 (1 point)
Primary responsibility in Canada for regulating biocides is held by
Question 10 options:
the federal government
provincial and territorial governments
farming organizations
chemical manufacturers
Question 11 (1 point)
________ has become a major destination for e-waste.
Question 11 options:
United States
Question 12 (1 point)
Permanent cropland refers to ________.
Question 12 options:
land where crops do not require annual replanting
all of these
lands that are used primarily for grazing livestock
fallowland or pasture that has been used to grow crops within
any five-year period
land where crops require annual replanting
Question 13 (1 point)
Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol in ________.
Question 13 options:
Question 14 (1 point)
The most effective units of environmental management are
Question 14 options:
based on political boundaries
based on environmental functions
based on administrative boundaries
Question 15 (1 point)
One of the first steps in effectively communicating scientific
understanding is ________.
Question 15 options:
all of the these
to call a large public meeting for all interested parties
to recognize that different target audiences have different levels
of understanding
to hold a press conference and getting the message out through
the media
Question 16 (1 point)
Specifically, in 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the
United Nations Environment Programme established the
Question 16 options:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Kyoto Protocol
Rio Earth Summit
Question 17 (1 point)
The reduction in ice cover in Arctic latitudes will result in ________.
Question 17 options:
rising sea levels
increased stability of adjacent land
increased ice in Arctic shipping routes
reduced risk of landslides
Question 18 (1 point)
Public agencies often prefer a standardized approach to
environmental management because ________.
Question 18 options:
it ensures equal effectiveness of resource management
all environmental problems can be solved in the same way
it ensures equal quality in environmental management
it allows them to avoid criticism over preferential treatment
Question 19 (1 point)
The Green Revolution is ________.
Question 19 options:
a global environmental movement
the rapid expansion of forest lands worldwide
the global intensification of agricultural production
the distribution of poverty worldwide
Question 20 (1 point)
Today, most of Canada’s forests are harvested by ________.
Question 20 options:
commercial thinning
silvicultural methods
selective cutting
Question 21 (1 point)
The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5o with respect to the plane of its
orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 30o, we
would expect in middle latitudes:
Question 21 options:
warmer summers and colder winters than at present
warmer summers and milder winters than at present
cooler summers and colder winters than at present
no appreciable change from present conditions
cooler summers and milder winters than at present
Question 22 (1 point)
The dominant crops grown in Canada are ________.
Question 22 options:
barley, canola, rice, and rye
wheat, rice, and corn
soybean, barley, canola, and wheat
hay, corn, rice, and soybean
Question 23 (1 point)
________ of forests in Canada are owned and managed by
Indigenous peoples.
Question 23 options:
8 per cent
5 per cent
2 per cent
4 per cent
Question 24 (1 point)
________ is NOT a greenhouse gas.
Question 24 options:
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur oxide
Question 25 (1 point)
In Canada, precipitation has increased the most in _______.
Question 25 options:
the Southern Prairies
Vancouver Island, British Columbia
the Maritimes
the Northern regions
Question 26 (1 point)
The two principles that should be followed to improve resource and
environmental management are ________.
Question 26 options:
science-based decision-making and best practices
agency coordination and transparency
best practices and stakeholder participation
science-based decision-making and agency coordination
Question 27 (1 point)
The longest living tree species in Canada is the ________.
Question 27 options:
Question 28 (1 point)
Initially, environmental impact assessments focused on ________.
Question 28 options:
biophysical impacts
social concerns
policy outcomes
economic factors
Question 29 (1 point)
A long-term view for environmental management represents the
time span of ________.
Question 29 options:
5–10 years
50–75 years
100 years or more
15 years or more
Question 30 (1 point)
When volcanoes eject particles into the atmosphere, it leads to the
Earth’s ________.
Question 30 options:
Question 31 (1 point)
Manitoba’s 1998 Sustainable Development Act explicitly recognizes
________ as an important component of sustainable development.
Question 31 options:
industrial responsibility
government participation
public responsibility
public participation
Question 32 (1 point)
The development of higher-yielding or otherwise “improved” crops
through cross-breeding of different varieties or strains is called
Question 32 options:
genetic modification
none of these
Question 33 (1 point)
Currently, oceans are about _______ more acidic compared to
pre-industrial times.
Question 33 options:
70 per cent
10 per cent
30 per cent
50 per cent
Question 34 (1 point)
Large-scale forest fires promote climate change via ________.
Question 34 options:
increasing soil erosion
reducing water storage capacity
releasing stored carbon
carbon sequestration
Question 35 (1 point)
Eating at the lowest level on the agricultural food chain is beneficial
because ________.
Question 35 options:
crops are easier to farm than animals
grains provide more valuable nutrients than meat
you maximize the amount of usable energy in the food system
plants use more energy to grow than animals
Question 36 (1 point)
________ is NOT an auxiliary energy flow to agro-ecosystems.
Question 36 options:
Fossil fuel input
An irrigation system
Solar input
Question 37 (1 point)
What percentage of the world’s water originates in Canadian
Question 37 options:
80 percent
50 percent
20 percent
10 per cent
Question 38 (1 point)
The most productive ocean areas are ________.
Question 38 options:
a. coastal zones
b. zones of upwelling
c. open ocean
d. both A and B
Question 39 (1 point)
The reversal of the positions of surface high and low pressure at
opposite ends of the Pacific Ocean is called:
Question 39 options:
El Niño
La Niña.
the Southern Oscillation
La Nada
Question 40 (1 point)
Negotiation, mediation, and arbitration are all ________.
Question 40 options:
last-minute approaches used only when necessary
similar to public consultation
types of alternative dispute resolution
standard for handling dispute resolution in Canada
Question 41 (1 point)
Impact assessments for policies and programs are called ________.
Question 41 options:
precautionary assessments
strategic risk assessments
strategic environmental assessments
environmental impact assessments
Question 42 (1 point)
A thermocline is ________.
Question 42 options:
the transition in temperature between the warmer surface
waters and the cooler waters underneath
the zone of high productivity in the oceans
the process whereby warm surface waters are cooled at high
latitudes and returned to deeper, colder basins
the relationship between heat and other forms of energy
Question 43 (1 point)
Most of Canada’s forests are managed by ________.
Question 43 options:
the federal and territorial government
provincial governments
timber companies
individual farmers
Question 44 (1 point)
Long term changes in temperature, clouds, winds, pressure and
frequency of extreme weather events combine to make ________.
Question 44 options:
global warming
climate change
climate adaptation
Question 45 (1 point)
According to the anthropocentric perspective ________.
Question 45 options:
a. non-human species have an inherent value
d. Both A and C
c. humans are part of nature, not separate from it
b. humans have a dominant role relative to nature
Question 46 (1 point)
________ has been linked to the appearance of hermaphroditic
Question 46 options:
Global climate change
Collection of bycatch
Bottom trawling
Question 47 (1 point)
Soil acidification is accelerated by ________.
Question 47 options:
the application of fertilizers
the use of biocides
the application of lime
the use of heavy machinery on wet soils
Question 48 (1 point)
The production of food solely for the farm household is called
Question 48 options:
organic farming
green farming
subsistence farming
local farming
Question 49 (1 point)
The approach in which local citizens are genuinely allocated
responsibility and authority for certain aspects of resource and
environmental management is called ________.
Question 49 options:
targeted initiatives
selective management
authoritative management
Question 50 (1 point)
Compared to conventional farming practices, organic farming
systems are _________.

Question 50 options:
open nutrient cycles
similar in energy efficiency per unit crop
more energy efficient per unit crop
less energy efficient per unit crop
Question 51 (1 point)
Since cultivation began, up to________ of the carbon originally
present in the surface soil layer has been lost.
Question 51 options:
23 per cent
30 per cent
19 per cent
42 per cent
Question 52 (1 point)
Drawbacks of global warming for agriculture include risks that
Question 52 options:
plants may be more vulnerable to drought
plants may be more vulnerable to heat stress
there may be increased pressure on water resources
all of these
Question 53 (1 point)
The belief that there is a natural order governing relationship
between living things, which humans disrupt through ignorance, is
an expression of ________.
Question 53 options:
humancentric values
technocentric values
ecocentric values
the biosphere approach
Question 54 (1 point)
The process of planting shrubs and trees to reduce the amount of
CO2 in the atmosphere is called ________.
Question 54 options:
carbon loading
carbon sequestration
carbon trading
Question 55 (1 point)
One of the major difficulties working against sustainable human use
of the oceans is _______.
Question 55 options:
bottom trawling
lack of understanding of oceanic ecosystems
transportation routes to ship products
commercial fisheries
Question 56 (1 point)
Climate models should consider the implications of __________ in
order to predict future climates.
Question 56 options:
latitude and longitude
population growth
the laws of thermodynamics
radiation, dynamics, surface processes, chemistry and
Question 57 (1 point)
Precession is the combination of:
Question 57 options:
axial precession and eccentricity
axial precession and precession of the ellipse
all of these
precession of the equinoxes and precession of the ellipse
Question 58 (1 point)
People are considered undernourished if ________.
Question 58 options:
health impacts associated with poor diet, such as blindness,
become apparent
their caloric intake is adequate but deficient in other
requirements, such as vitamins
their caloric intake is less then 90 per cent of the recommended
level for their size and activity level
their poor dietary practices lead to high levels of obesity
Question 59 (1 point)
Impact assessments should be done ________.
Question 59 options:
after a project is complete
once development has begun
to determine best mitigation practices
early in the project planning process
Question 60 (1 point)
Many governments are less concerned about the environment and
more concerned about ________.
Question 60 options:
health care
human poverty
education standards
debt and deficit reduction
Question 61 (1 point)
________ is an example of coordination.
Question 61 options:
a. Interdepartmental committees ensuring that goals are met
b. A task force organizing the activities of different agencies
c. The exchange of resources
d. Both A and B
Question 62 (1 point)
Studies of locations of hazardous waste landfills in the United States
found that three quarters of all such sites are located near
Question 62 options:
wealthy communities
agricultural areas
minority communities
major cities
Question 63 (1 point)
Biocides are used in Canada’s forests to ________.
Question 63 options:
maximize the growth of early successional species
ensure success of desired tree species for future harvesting
increase competition with seedlings on replanted sites
protect conifer seedlings from insect damage
Question 64 (1 point)
Canada has one-quarter of the world’s _________.
Question 64 options:
a. temperate rainforest
b. boreal forest
c. both A and B
d. none of the above
Question 65 (1 point)
The Milankovitch Theory proposes that climatic changes are due to:
Question 65 options:
changing levels of CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere
particles suspended in the earth’s atmosphere
variations in the earth’s orbit as it travels through space
volcanic eruptions
Question 66 (1 point)
________ is the most common soil conservation practice in
Question 66 options:
Contour cultivation
Grassed waterways
Crop rotation
Strip cropping
Question 67 (1 point)
In resource and environmental management, ________ is
Question 67 options:
a long-term view
all of these
a middle-term view
a short-term view
Question 68 (1 point)
On land, water availability is the most common limiting factor for life;
in oceans, it is ________.
Question 68 options:
Question 69 (1 point)
The 2018 IPCC report, points out that 14.5 per cent of global GHG
emissions are from ______.
Question 69 options:
volcanic activity
Question 70 (1 point)
The most widely used climate models are ________.
Question 70 options:
general circulation models
two-dimensional statistical-dynamic climate models
one-dimensional radiative-connective climate models
energy balance models
Question 71 (1 point)
In the Canadian Prairies, burrowing owls declined significantly, due
to the use of ________.
Question 71 options:
Question 72 (1 point)
Arable cropland refers to ________.
Question 72 options:
fallowland or pasture that has been used to grow crops within
any five-year period
lands that are used primarily for grazing livestock
land where crops require annual replanting
land where crops do not require annual replanting
Question 73 (1 point)
The belief that humans can understand, control, and manipulate
nature for their own purposes, and that nature exists to meet human
needs, is an expression of ________.
Question 73 options:
ecocentric values
humancentric values
the biosphere approach
technocentric values
Question 74 (1 point)
One element of context in planning and management that is
important to consider is ________.
Question 74 options:
d. both B and C
c. local communities
b. Aboriginal populations
a. market forces
Question 75 (1 point)
Berries, maple syrup, mushrooms, and seeds are all ________.
Question 75 options:
imported into Canada
invasive species
all of these
non-timber forest products
Question 76 (1 point)
Many of the world’s main oil fields, such as the North Sea in Europe
and Hibernia off the coast of Newfoundland, are situated in
Question 76 options:
continental deposits
coastal communities
sedimentary basins under the oceans
Arctic regions
Question 77 (1 point)
Most Canadians’ understanding of global climate change is
Question 77 options:
Question 78 (1 point)
The process that focuses on determining the likelihood of an
environmentally-negative event of special magnitude and the costs
of dealing with the consequences is called ________.
Question 78 options:
risk assessment
adaptive management
environmental impact assessment
the precautionary principle
Question 79 (1 point)
An example of a stakeholder is ________.
Question 79 options:
all of these
interested citizens
community groups
First Nations
Question 80 (1 point)
The deepest part of the ocean is ________ deep.
Question 80 options:
over 1,000 metres
over 5,000 metres
over 20,000 metres
over 9,000 metres
Question 81 (1 point)
The Green Revolution is characterized by ________.
Question 81 options:
a. organic farming methods
b. the introduction of higher-yield seeds
c. a reliance on auxiliary energy flows
d. both A and B
e. both B and C
Question 82 (1 point)
An example of the “precautionary principle” is ________.
Question 82 options:
taking small steps to mitigate the effects of the problem, rather
than taking large radical steps that will solve or prevent the
taking action now to obtain full scientific evidence
doing nothing until more scientific evidence has been
acting on something if the bulk of scientific evidence suggests
that action is needed, even if some knowledge is incomplete
Question 83 (1 point)
Plowing alters soil ________.
Question 83 options:
by mixing with air
through auxiliary flows
Question 84 (1 point)
The development of higher-yielding or otherwise “improved” crops
through combining specific genes from different varieties, strains, or
unrelated species is called ________.
Question 84 options:
genetic modification
none of these
Question 85 (1 point)
A set of moral principles or values that guide actions and decisions
is called ________.
Question 85 options:
a vision
an ethic
Question 86 (1 point)
The deposition of salts in irrigated soils is called ________.
Question 86 options:
acid deposition
Question 87 (1 point)
Nakashima (1990) suggested that to better understand ecosystems,
we should make more use of ________.
Question 87 options:
traditional scientific knowledge
international policies
traditional ecological knowledge
public opinion
Question 88 (1 point)
Temperature anomaly indicates:
Question 88 options:
long-term averages of temperature range
all of these
temperature change with height
running means of temperature average for a given time
number of degrees above or below long-term average
Question 89 (1 point)
The elements considered in the ecosystem approach are ________.
Question 89 options:
all of these
non-living elements
Question 90 (1 point)
Canada’s forests cover ________.
Question 90 options:
all of these
more of southern Canada than northern Canada
a larger area of the more populated provinces and territories
approximately 35 per cent of Canada’s land area
Question 91 (1 point)
As global temperature increases, ________.
Question 91 options:
a. hoary marmots may fail with a decrease in their preferred
open meadow habitat
b. polar bears may lose the habitat created for them in Wapusk
National Park in Manitoba
c. forests may shift up to 700 km northward
d. A and B
e. B and C
Question 92 (1 point)
Incidence of infectious diseases may increase as a result of
Question 92 options:
more rainfall
all of these
warmer temperatures
earlier springs
Question 93 (1 point)
Warm surface water that is cooled at high latitudes and then sinks to
deeper basins is part of ________ circulation.
Question 93 options:
Question 94 (1 point)
The “fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people
regardless or race, colour, national origin, or income” with respect to
“environmental laws, regulations and policies” is called ________.
Question 94 options:
environmental fairness
environmental justice
environmental equality
environmental equity
Question 95 (1 point)
Canada is the ________ largest exporter of forest products in the
Question 95 options:
Question 96 (1 point)
Coral bleaching refers to a process whereby ________.
Question 96 options:
warmer water temperatures lead to increased productivity in
coral reefs
corals expel the zooxanthellae that serve as their primary food
zooxanthellae attack the coral’s protective skeleton, resulting in
death of the corals
zooxanthellae eat carbohydrates produced by the coral,
resulting in a change of coral colour
Question 97 (1 point)
Impacts of global warming do NOT include ________.
Question 97 options:
retreat of glaciers
reduced snow cover
sea levels falling
permafrost warming
Question 98 (1 point)
Agriculture dates back ________ years ago.
Question 98 options:
Question 99 (1 point)
The use of no-till agriculture and reduced areas of summer fallow
has led to ________.
Question 99 options:
limited change in the amount of greenhouse gas stored or
emitted from agricultural land
Canadian cropland changing from a greenhouse gas sink to a
greenhouse gas source
increasing greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural land in
Canadian cropland changing from a greenhouse gas source to a
greenhouse gas sink
Question 100 (1 point)
Certain thresholds normally exist in natural systems. When these
are exceeded, ________.
Question 100 options:
logging can occur
native species usually prosper
environmental deterioration can occur
ecosystem homeostasis is maintained
Question 101 (1 point)
The difference between weather and climate is in the:
Question 101 options:
type of weather elements measured
measuring technique used
time period involved
temperature scale used

Purchase answer to see full

SOLUTION: The Development of Pigs that Produce Lower Phosphorus Question

Calculate your order
Pages (275 words)
Standard price: $0.00
Client Reviews
Our Guarantees
100% Confidentiality
All your data is secure and will never be disclosed to third parties. Your essay or assignment is treated as your intellectual property and can never be shared or provided as a sample to aspiring customers.
Original Writing
We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.
Timely Delivery
You will never have to worry about deadlines – 98% of our assignments are completed on time.
Money Back
We give refunds anytime you feel the work did not meet your expectations. However, we have not refunded any papers in the last 6 months as our team keeps improving their quality and customer service.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Power up Your Academic Success with the
Team of writers and tutors. We are here for you.
Power up Your Study Success with Experts We’ve Got Your Back.