# SOLUTION: MTH 311 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Interpreting Graphs Discussion

SOLUTION: MTH 311 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Interpreting Graphs Discussion.

Suppose your instructor wants to evaluate his teaching. If his students are

getting good grades, he will probably assume he’s doing a good job. The

“proof” might be a complete list of students showing the current grade

next to each name. This does provide information, but too much detail. A Statistics Tutorial: Frequency Tables

summary of grades displayed in a frequency table might be more

Activity: Construct a Frequency Table

useful.

A frequency table displays data in a table with two columns. The first

lists all possible results and the second the number of times that result occurred. So, in the example

below, our teacher’s frequency table could have the “letter grades” in the left column and the number of

students receiving that grade in the right column. Grouping the data like this makes it much easier to

draw a conclusion.

But what if, instead of letter grades, the student results were recorded as total points? If the maximum

points were 500, would you want to see a table with 500 rows? Given all the possible values, only a few

point totals would likely have more than one student. Once again, by creating some point ranges, you can

group the students into meaningful point categories and easily summarize the data.

You can present even more useful information by adding a relative frequency column and a cumulative

frequency column.

Relative and Cumulative Frequency

The relative frequency is the proportion or percentage of times a particular result occurred.

As always, percentages add context. Instead of only knowing that 15 students are getting a C, you also

know that’s 60% of the class.

The cumulative frequency, on the other hand, is the proportion or percentage of occurrences in that

category and all preceding categories. The cumulative frequency is more meaningful when the results or

result categories are arranged in ascending or descending order. You could see at a glance, for example,

that 84% of the students are getting a “C” or better in the class.

Visual Representations of Data

You’ve heard the saying that “a picture is worth a thousand words.” The expression is a reminder that you

can often communicate complex information more simply and more effectively with a picture rather than a

wordy explanation. For example, I don’t need to actually read the sports page when I want to find out if

my favorite team won the big game. Seeing that first picture of my guys either raising their arms or

hunching their shoulders tells me all I need to know.

This lesson introduces you to the techniques most commonly used to visually display statistical data.

When developed correctly, statistical “pictures” like tables, graphs, and charts make it easier to

understand the data at a glance.

This lesson and the next deal with a segment of statistics called descriptive analysis. As its name

implies, the goal of descriptive analysis is simply to describe the data. You summarize the results (e.g.,

how many people liked or disliked the product) without necessarily drawing any conclusions.

Student 1:

https://localnews8.com/news/top-stories/2020/10/15/fighting-the-opioid-epidemic-inidaho/

Fighting the opioid epidemic in Idaho – Local News 8Governor Little says he is

committing to combating substance misuse in Idaho.Local News 8

This graph could be misleading with the gray color has abuse potential. The numbers

would not be 100% accurate because they are saying this person has potential to have

a problem, but does not currently have a problem. I also think it is interesting that

natural opioids cause more death than synthetic.

I did not know the difference of natural vs semisynthetic vs syntheic opioids, in case I

am not the only one:

There are 3 main types of opioids:

Natural opiates include morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Semisynthetic/manmade opioids are created in labs from natural opiates. Semi-synthetic

opioids include hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone (the prescription drug

OxyContin), as well as heroin, which is made from morphine

After researching the difference or the meaning of the colors on the graph I think it is

intersting that they seperated heroin for it own color, yellow, rather then lump it in with

the natural opioids, blue. The graphy shows that in the state of Idaho from 2001-2018

overdose deaths have increased substantially, but I would like to know the drug for

instance are they dieing from morphine, codeine, oxycodone or norco. In the dental

world it is very common for after a tooth has been pulled to prescrib a patient norco 5.

My old dentist use to give patients 10 norco 5 for when he removed wisdom teeth. My

new dentist puts all patient after an extraction on a stricked ibuprofen and tylenol

regiment and no opioids. I have worked for my dentist for over 2 years now and i have

never seen him prescribe an opioid. Some people are not happy, but we have not had

anyone say anything or disagree with the doctor when he talks about the regiment.

Student 2:

The information on this graph shows the percentage of high schoolers on

specific illicit drugs in the state of New Mexico. I chose this state not only

because it is where I live but because drugs in this state are at a severe

high. This graph shows that prescription drug use among the high

schoolers is the highest at 14.3%, followed by cocaine at 8.8%, Ecstasy at

7.9%, Meth at 4.4%, with Heroin coming in last at 3.5%.

The graph the way it is already is showing some scary information, but it

could be in more detail such as adding male/female and what types of

opioids such as natural & synthetic, methadone, synthetic (not including

methadone), and heroin. By adding this information to the graph, it would

give more information to the reader.

Below the graph it states each drug type was higher than the national

average so it would be nice to have a better graph that would show the

national average for each state.

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SOLUTION: MTH 311 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Interpreting Graphs Discussion