SOLUTION: MCCKC Freud’s Ideas and Arguments Essay

SOLUTION: MCCKC Freud’s Ideas and Arguments Essay.

·lll
OuR enquiry concerning happiness has not so far taught us
.much that is not already common knowledge. And even if we
·proceed from it to the problem of why it is so hard for men to be
happy, there seems no greater prospect of learning anything
new. We have given ‘the answer already [p. 24] by pointing to
the three sources from which our suffering comes: the superior
power of nature, the feebleness of our own bodies and the
inadequacy of the regulations which adjust the mutual relation·
ships of human beings in the family, the state and society. In
regard to the :first two sources, our judgement cannot hesitate
long. It forces us to acknowledge those sources of suffering and
to submJt to the inevitable. We shall never completely master
nature; and our bodily organism, itself a part of that nature,
… will always remain a transient structure :with a Umited capacity
for adaptation and achievement. This recognition does not have
a paralysing effect. On the contrary, it points the direction for
our activity. If we ·c annot remove all suffering, we can remove
some; and we
mitigate some: the experience of many
thousands of years has convinced of that. As regarW. the third
source, the social source of suffering; our attitude is adifFerent
one. We do not admit it at all; we cannot see why the regwa.o
tion.s made by ourselves should not, on the contrary, be a protection and a benefit for every· one of us. And yet, when we
consider how unsuccessful we have .been in precisely this field
of prevention of suffering, a suspicion dawns on us that here,
too, a piece
nature may lie behind- this time
a piece of our own psychical constitution.
.
When we start considering this possibility, we come upo11
a contention which is so astonishing that we must dwell upon
it. This contention holds that what we call our civilization is
largely responsible for our misery, and that we should be much
happier if we gave it up and returned to primitive conditions.
I call this contention astonishing because, in whatever way we
may define the concept of civilization, it is a certain fact that
all the things with wh:ich we seek to protect ourselves against the
threats that emanate from . the sources of suffering are part of
that very civilization.
can
··:
34’
..
·j
‘ ClVILIZATlON . AND
How has
tl!at $0
take up this strange. (Attitude of hoitility to
belim that the·ham· ‘Of it wu a deep
satisfactionwith ..
on that
certain specHic !Ustw)ric31
and the last·but ODC
!tt.·. ·.
–. ,·.·.1,·. -:.
.
..
,bm,e·,· ·· _.,
. l ·.
dif.· .
of it·:, _ bUilt up;,o«. . .J;r.· · .::
l think l ‘know what
Ja:lt · :c
occaaio•
·. ·
of them far
the
· hiitpr,y’olthe human species; but a factor ofthQ k,iDd
·
c:iY.lliDt;k>n mu,st already have been at l’Ork
vkcory Of··
over the heathen religions. tor it W., vcey cb¢1y ..
to the low dpmation
upori e-.rthly
by .. the .
The last· but one. or thae .otcuioai’ ·lial
wlien the progress of voyages of discovery led tO C.Qft.t
·. · .·
primitive . peoples and
ln consequence;
·
observation and a mistaken view of their mannen md
·
they appeared to Europeans to be !eading a simple,
. ·
with h ,ants, a life suCh as was unattaiPable .by
.
their ‘mperior civilization. Later
of those judgements. In many cMea the obaervera
.
tO the absence of com.plicated
·
demands what was iD fact due to the bounty of
ease with which the major human needs
fie’IUt·
occasion is especially familiar to us. It
ll(hen.·peopte cil.nie ·
to ‘know .a,bout the. mechanism Of the
whieh
.. ;: .
w undelmirie
modicum of happina enjoyed.by
·
It was discovered that a persoD becomes neurotic
·
.
can.,t tolerate
amount of frustration ‘Wbidt · JOiCiOty· .
iatpQsts him in the service of im cultural ideals, and
.
.inferred from this that the. abolition or reduttipn df
·;’ ·
demads
result in a return to
or
..
a also an added factor of disappomtment.bwing .· ·
the last few generations mankind has m-.ie &11:
·
adVance in.the natural sciences and in their teeuical appliea•
.W»l and has eatablished his control over nature in a
·uever ..
·
¥noligly .attributed
on
J.magiDed. The single steps of this
are ·common 4
bc>Wledge and it is unnecessary to .
t)lem. Men are
of those achievements, and have a ri,ght to be.
they
aeem to ·have observed that this new,ly-won: })Ower over spaa .
·• 1 [Freud. had .discUsaed this qurstion
len«tb two .
years tatlier, in the opening chaptcn of 1M F,.t.rr f1j 4Ift RlwJJ (1927c).} · · ..jli
.

·.

;- .
.
..

..
.

.. ,_.
.
,.·
.
:tTS
. 55 .
of the
of nat.uJ’e, whi¢11 il t.he
fulfilment of a longing that gOes bad thousands of
l:w.
not increased the aiDOmt of pleasurable. satmactioD which they .
may expect
life
.hai not made
feel happier.
From ‘the recognition Of this fact we ought to be content t()
elude that power over natUre il not the on·[y .pfeoonditioo :of’;.
human bappinea; just as it u not the oll/1 goal of
.
endeavoUr; we
not .to infer from it that technic.. PivP•
value for the economics of our happineSs. ODe·.woqkl·
like tO ask: il there, then, no positive ·gain in plea:sute, liCl
unequivocal increase in my feeling of happineis, if I ·can, u ·
.often as I please,. hear the voice Qfa·child of mine who iS living
ofmiles.away or ifl can learn in the shortest pOssible
time after a friend has reached hi.& destination that he has come
through the long and difficult voyage unharmed? Does z,nean
nothing that mediciQ.e has
in enormouily redudftg·. ·
and. the danger of infection for womeo·· .u-•. ·
infant
childbirth, and;,indeed, in.considerably lengthening the aver• .
life of a civilized man? And
is a lorig mt that nilght – · .
added to benefits of this kind which we owe . to the .Jilueh· ·
despised era of
and technical advances.’ But here the
voice of pessirnMic criticism makes itself heard and warns us
that mort·of these satisfactions follow the model of the ‘cheap
enjoyment’ extolled in the anecdote-the enjoyment
.
by putting a bare leg from . under the bedelothes .
c::ow .
winter night and drawing it
again. If there had been J10 .
railway to conquer distances, my child would never have: left .
native town and I should need no telephone to hear Ilia vOice; if’ ·
travelling across the ocean by ship had not been introduced, m.y
friend would DQt have embarked on his .sea•voyage and J should
not need a ·c able tO relieve my anxiety about him. ·What isthe
use of
infantile mortality ·w hen it
precisely
reduction which imposes the greatest restr-aint on ui ili the · ·
begetting of chi1.dreD, so that, taken all round, we nevertheless’
rear no more
than in the days before
reign of
hygiene, while at the same time we have treilted difficult ·con·
ditions for
sexual . life in marriage, and have
worked asa.inst the beneficial.effects of natural sdection? And,
finally’ what good to us is. long Ufe ifit is difticult and batten Q(
joys, and ifit is so fidl of misery that we can only welcome death
as a deliverer?

·
·
and time; this
them
m
our
on a
36
CIVILIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS
It ·seems certain · that we do not feel conuo;rtable ·in_
present-day civilization, but it is very difficult toforni .an opinion
whether and ig what degree men of an earlier age felt happier ·
and what part their cultural conditions played in the matter.
We shall always tend to consider people’s distress objectivelythat is, to place ourselves, with our own wants and sensibilities,
in their conditions, and then to examine what occasions we
should find_in them for experiencing happiness or unhappiness.
This methoC1 of looking at things, which seems objective because it ignores the variations in subjective sensibility, is, ‘Of
course, the most subjective possible, since it puts one’s own·.
mental states in the place of any others, unknown though. they ··.·
may be. Happiness, however, is something essentially subjective.
No matter how much we rnay shrink with horror from certain .
situations-of a galley-slave in antiquity, of a peasant during
the Thirty Years’ War, of a victim of the Holy Inquisition, of a
Jew awaiting a pogrom- it is nevertheless impossible for us to .
feel our way into such people-to divine the changes which
Original obtuseness . of mind, a . gradual stupefying process,
·the cessation of expectations, and cruder or more , refined
methods of narcotization have produced upon their receptivity
to sensations of pleasure and unpleasure. Moreover, in the case
of the most extreme possibility of suffering, special mental
protective devices are brought into operation. It seems to me . .
unprofitable to pursue this aspect of the problem any further. ·
It is time for us to turn our attention to the nature of this
civilization on whose value as a means .to happiness doubts have
been thrown. We shall not look for a formula in which to ex- .
press. that nature in.’ a few words, until we have learned some•
thing by examining it. We shall therefore content ourselves
with saying once more that the word ‘ctvilization’ 1 describes
the whole sum of the achievements and the regulations .which
distinguish our lives from those of our animal
and
which serve two purposes-namely to protect men against
nature and to adjust their mutual relations.• In order to learn
more, we will bring together the various features of civilization
indiVidually, as they are exhibited in human communities. In
doing so; we shall have no hesitation in letting ourselves be
1 ‘Kultur.’ For the translation of this word see the Editor’s Note to
Tit£ Future.of an lllusim.
1 See The Future of an Illusion.
31 ‘.
guided by
or, as itJ.i ‘alao
feeling, in,the eonvicdoil tPat·We shall thm be doing justice tci’
inner dUcernrll:ent! wbi-ch stilt defy ex:pression in abStract
The first stage is easy. We reCognize as cultural all aCtivities ‘
and resoutees
are useful to men for.
the. earth .’
serviceable to them, for protecting them agaiJat the violence
the forces of nature, and so on; As reg.uds this side of
·.·
tion, there can be scarcely any doubt. Ifwe go .back far ebough,
we find’ that the first ac& of civilization were the use of:tpolt,·

gaining of control over.fire and the. comtntction’ of

Among
the contr91 over fire stands out _u a qUite.
ordinary anCl LtDexampled · achievement,1 ·while the othen
opened .up paths whiCh man has followed ever since, and the
stimulus to whith is easily guessed. With every tool man is
perfecting his. own organs, whether motor or sensory, or ia
removing the limits to their functioning. Motor JIO:Wer”
gigantic forces at 1m disposal, which, like his mtOOia, he cait·
,.. employ in·
thanks to ships and aircraft neither”
water nor air can hinder his movements; by means of
:
he coiTects defects in the lens of his own -eye; by means
or .
:
incomplete as it is and not susceptible to
admits of a conjecture-a fantastieaounding
the origin of thia human feat. lt il u though .
primal man had the habit, when he Came in contact widi.
of ;. .
satisfYing an infantile .desire
with it, by putting it out With’ •
a stream rLhis·u;fue. The legends that we po88eSS leave no doubt about
the origiilally phallic view taken of tongues of flame as they
upwards.
by micturating-a theme to
giants, Gulliver Lilliput and
Gargantuat.still ha,k bacli:was therefore a iind of sexual act wtth a male, an enJoyment of aexual
potency in a bom.OSex.ual
The first person to renounce this
desire and .spare the fire was.able to carry it off with him and subcNe
it to IUs own use. .By damping down the fire. of his own SCXl,ial

he had tamed the
fOrce of fire. ‘This great cultur81 cooqueiitwai. . ·
thus the l’eWard
his renunciation of instinct. Further; it ii
had been
guardian of the fire which
held capti’e ·
on the domesti.c hearth, becauae
anatomy made·it
for _her .
to yield to the
of
desire. It is
too, ·how ‘
regularly
experience testifies to the comle(:qpn between···
ambition, fire and urethral
had pointed to
..
nection between urinatiOn and fire as early as in the ‘Data’ cue histo.rf
The c.ormeCtion with ambition came
A (Ql1 .
list of references.will be fOund in the EditOr,_ Note to the
paper on.
the subject, ‘The AcqUisition and Control of Fire’ (l932a).] ·
1
clear
fire
thu
88
blVILIZATION AND ITS
telescope he sees into the far distance; and by means of the
microscope he overcomes the limits of visibility set by the
structure of his retina. In the photographic caniera he has
created an instrument which retains the fleeting visual
sions, just ·as · a gramophone disc retains the equally fleeting
of the power
auditory ones; both are at bottom
he possesses of recollection; his memory. With the help of the
telephone he can hear at distances which would be respected as
unattainable even in a fairy tale. Writiftg was in its origin the
voice pf an absent person; and the dwelling·house WaS a sub:.
stitute for the mother’s womb, the first lodging, for which in all ·
likelihood man still longs, and in which he was safe and felt at
ease.
These things that, by his science and technology, man has
brought about on this earth, on which he first appeared as a
feeble animal organism and on which each individual of his
species must once more make its entry . (‘oh inch of nature!’ 1)
as a helpless suckling-these things do not oQ]y sound like a
. fairy tale, they are an actual fulfilment of every-or ofalmost
every-fairy-tale wish. All these assets he may lay claim to as his
cultural acquisition. Long ago he formed an ideal conception of
onlnipotence and omniscience which he embodied in his gods.
To these gods he attributed everything that seemed unat>ainable to his wishes, or that was forbidden to him. One may say,
therefore, that these gods were cultural .ideals. To-day he has
come very close to the attainment of this ideal, he has almost
in which .
become a god himself. Only, it is tJ1.!.e, in the
ideals are usually attained according to the general judgement ·
Not completely; in
respects not at all, in
others only half way. Man has., as it were, become a kind of
[In English in the originaJ. This very Shakespearean phrase is not in
fact to be found in the canon·of Shakespeare. The wordi ‘Poore inch of.
Nature’ occur, however, in a novel by George Wilkins, Tht Pairiftill
Aduentures of Pericks Prince of Tyrt, where they are ·addressed. by
Pericles to his Wfant daughter. This work was first printed in 1608,just
after. the publication of Shakespeare’s play, in which WiUcim has been
thought to have had a hand. Freud’s unexpected acquaintance with the .· · ·
phrase is explained by its appearance in a discussion of the origim of
Pmcles in Georg Brandes’s weJI-known book on Shakespeare, a copy of
the German translation of which had a place in. Freud’s library (Brandes,
1896). He .is known to have greatly admil’ed the Danish critic (cf.Jones• . ·
. 1957, 120), and. the same book is quoted m his paper on the t:hree .
caaketa (1913/).]
1
CIVILIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS
.39
prosthetic1 · God. When he puts on all. his auxiliary
he is
truly magnificent; but those organs have not grown on to him
and
give him much trouble at times. Nevertheless, he
is entitled toconsole himself with the thought that thi5 development will
come to an end precisely with the year 1930 A.D.
Future_ ages will bring with them new and probably unimaginin this field of civilization and will increase
ably great
man’s likeness to God still more. But in the interests of our
investigations, we will not forget that present-day man does not
feel happy in his Godlike character.
We recognize, then, that countries have attained a high
level of civilization if we find that in them everything which can
assist in the exploitation of the earth by man and in his protection against the forces of nature-everything, in short,
which is of use to him-is attended to and effectively carried
out. In such countries rivers which threaten to flood the land
are regulated in their flow, and their water is directed through
canals to places where there is a shortage of it. The soil is
fully cultivated and planted .with the vegetation which it i8
suited to support; and the mineral wealth below ground is
assiduously brought to the surface and fashioned into the required implements and utensils. The means of communication
are ample, rapid and reliable. Wild ·and dangerous animals
have been exterminated, and the breeding of domesticated
animals flourishes. But we demand other things from civiliza·
tion besides these, and it is a noticeable fact that we hope to
find them realized in these same countries. As though we were
seeking to repudiate the first demand we made, we welcome it
as a sign of civilization as well if we see people directing their
care too to what has no practical value whatever, to what is
useless-if, for instance, the green spaces necessary in a town as
playgrounds and as reservoirs offresh air are also laid out with
flower-beds, or if the windows of the houses are decorated with
pots of flowers. We soon observe that this useless thing which we
expect civilization to value is beauty. We require civilized man
to reverence beauty wherever he sees it in nature and to create
it in the objects of his handiwork so far as he is able. But
far from exhausting our demands on civilization. We expect
[A prOsthesis is the medical term for an artificial adjunct to the body,
to make_ up for some missing or inadequate part: e.g. false teeth or a
false leg.]
.
1
·
ClVILlZAT.I ON
:ITs· t:nsO()fiT.BwfS
:·we
‘ ·. .
see the
do not ihitlk :
hig’hly·o f the cultural
.or an . English
to,wn ·in
Shakespeare’s ·time ·when we read that there was a big’
heap in front of his father’s house in Stratford; we are
>
and call it ‘barbarous’. (which is the oppOSite ()fcivmzed)
we :find the pat}ls in the Wiener Wald 1 littered with papet.
of any kind seems to us iJlcompatible with
.
. .We extend.our..demand for cleanliness to· the human bOdy
We are
to learn of the
smell
from the Roi Soleil ; 2 and we shake out heads em
Isola Bella• when we are shoWn thC tiny
in
·which Napoleon made hiB morning toilet.. Indeed, we are ·not
.sUrprised by.the idea ·of setting up the use of soap al an actual
yardsti.c;;k of civilization. The same. is true of order, Itt like
cleanliness, applies solely to the works of _man. But whereas
cleanliness is not to be expected in nature, order, on the con•
trary, has been imitated from her. Man’s
of the
.
not only furnished him with a ·•
fo.- intrOducing order into his life, but gave him the firs.t
. points of departure for doing so. 0Tder is ·a kind of co.mPulsio_n
tO rePeat-which, when a reg-Ulation has been )aid down (>nee arid
for all, decides when, where and how a thing shall be done, so ·
that in every similar circumstance one is spared hesitatiOn and · .
indecision. The benefits of order are incontestable. If
men to use space and time to the best advantage, while
serving their psychical forces. We should·have a right tQ
that o.nier woUld have taken its place in human activities
the start and Yithout difficulty; and we may well wonder that .:.
this’ has· ftOt happened-that, On the COntrary, human· beings ‘ I
dhibit ..· an inborn tendency to carelessness, irregularity . and .
unreliability in their work, and that a labonou$ training is ,
needed before they learn to follow the example their cclesiliil
models.
.
.
Beauty, cleanliness. and order ‘obviously oceupy a:
position among the requirements of civilization. No one Will
.
that they are as important for life as:: control over the
forees of nature or as some other factors .with which we shall
mo.
•th’
of
1 [The wooded hills on the outskirts of Vienna•] . . .
··
· • [Louis XIV of France.]
·
·
·
· ‘ ‘[The .wdJ;.Jtnown island in. Lake Maggiore, visited by Napoleon a .·
few days before’ the battle of Marengo.] ·
·
· ·
·
AND ITS DISCONTENTS
41
become acquainted. And yet nD one would care to put them in
the background as trivialities. That civilization is not exclusively
taken up with _what is useful is already shown by the example of
beauty, which we decline to omit from among the interests of
civilization. The usefulness of order is quite evident. With regard
to cleanliness, we must bear-in mind that it is demanded of us by
hygiene as well, and we rnay suspect that even before the days of
scientific prophylaxis the connection between the two was not
altogether strange to man. Yet utility does not entirely explain
these efforts;· something else must be at work besides.
No feature, however, seems better to characterize civilization
than its esteem and encouragement of man’s higher mental
activities-his intellectual, scientific and artistic achievementsand the leading role that it assigns to ideas in human life. Foremost among those ideas are the religious systems, on whose
complicated structure I have endeavoured to throw light elsewhere.1 Next come the speculations ofphilosophy; and final.y
what might be called man’s ‘ideals,-his ideas of a pOssible
perfection ofindividuals, or of peoples or of the whole ofhumanity, and the demands he sets up on the basis of such ideas. The
fact that these creations of his are not independent of one another, but are on the contrary closely interwoven, increases the
difficulty not only of describing them but of tracing their
psychological derivation. If we assume quite generally. that
the motive force of all human activities is a striving towards the
two confluent goals of utility and a yield of pleasure, we must
suppose that this is also true of the manifestations of civilization
been .discussing here, although this is easily
which we
visible only inJfientific and aesthetic activities. But it cannot be
doubted th€t’the other activities, too, correspond to strong
needs in men-perhaps to needs which are only developed in a
minority. Nor must we allow ourselves to be misled hy judgements of value concerning any particular religion, or ·philosophic -system, or ideal. Whether we think to find in them the
highest achievements of the human spirit, or whether we
deplore them as aberrations, we cannot but recognize that where
they are presenh and, in especial, where they are dominant, a
high level of civ,ilization is implied.
The last, but certainly not the least important, of the characteristic features of civilization remains to be assessed: the man1
[Cf. The Future of an Illusion (1927c).] .
•,,;
..
:
*
ner ill. which
te!atiOnsl:iips of men .fu
.-.• ·
.XW·relationships. are ·regulated-relatioiuhipl which
‘• ·:
person as a, neighbour; as a source of help, as another
·
sexual object, as a· member of a family and .ofa
Hereitii ·.
especially diftkult to keep clear of particular ideal demancts
to see. what ·is civilized in
·Perhaps we
begia_.by·
explaining _that tbe element of civilization enters orr.the
·
with the fi!st ·attempt to regulate these social.
.. dae -att.emPt were not made, the relationships would be
to the
will of the individual: that is to say, the physic- .
a.By ·stronger man would decide them in the sen!e of his own
alid instinctual impulses. Nothing would be changed in . man should in .his turn meet
even·
· this it this
1tronger than he. Human life in common is only made possible ·.
when a majority comes together which is stronger than any .·
separate individual and which remains united agains:t · all .
s(parate individuals. The power of this community then set
·up as ‘right’ in opposition to the power ofthe.indiVidual, ·which ·.
is condemned as ‘brute force’. This replacement ofthe pO.mr of
individual by the power
a community constitutes the .
step of civilization. The essence of it lie! in the fact that ·
the members of the community · restrict themselves’ in tlieiipossibilities of satisfaction, whereas the
.· knew no
such restrictions. The first requisite of civilization, .therefore, iS . ·
that ofjustice—–that is, the assurance that a law once made will
not be broken in favour of an individual. This implies nothing as · .
to the ethical value of such a law. The further course ofcUltural .. _,.
-d-evelopment seems to tend towards making the:Iaw no
·. ,:_:
of the wi11 of a small community-a
or a stratum. : ·.of the population or a racial group-which, in its turn,
, ,
like a, Violent individual towards other, and perhapi· more.
numerous, collections of people. The final outcome should· be a
rule of law to which all-except those who
not
or”
entering a community- have contributed. by a sacrifice oftheir .
instincts, and which leaves no one–again with the
exception.. at the mercy of brute. force.

The
of the individual is no gift of civilization. It
greatest
there was any Civilization; though then, it is tme,
· it had · for #le most part no .value, since th:c individual
scareely in a position tq defend it. The development of civiliza.e a single kind of sexual life fr evetyc)de,
disrega,r4s the dissimilarities, whether innate or acquired, .in
the sexual constitution of
beings; it cuts
a fait num- . · ·
ber of them
sexual enjOyment, and so beComes the ·soUrce
ofserious
Tho result ofsuch restrictive measures $ight ·
be tliat in
:who .are normal-who .a re not prevented by ·
their constitution· .the whole of their sexual interests wouid flOW · ·
without loss into. the channels
that
are teft open. But
hettJ’O· .·
; . .-1-·
i
I
·
.
and
imPose
the ·
52
CIVILIZATION AND ITS D 1tSCO:NTENTS
sexual genital love, which has remained exempt from outlawty,
is itself restricted by further limitations, in the shape of
tence upon
and monogamy. Present-day civiliza”:”
tion makes it plain that it will only permit sexual relationships·
on the basis of a solitary, indissoluble bond between one man
and one woman, and that it does not like sexuality as a sou.rce of
pleasure in its own right and is only prepared to tolerate it
because there is so far no substitute for it as a means of propagating the human race.
_
This, of course, is an extreme picture. Eyerybody knows that
it has proved impossible to put it into execution, even for quite
. short periods. Only the weaklings have submitted. to such an
extensive encroachment upon their sexual freedom, and stronger
natures have only done so subject to a compensatory condition,
be mentioned later. 1 Civilized society has found
which
itself obliged to pass over in silence many transgressions which,
according to its own rescripts, it ought to have punished. But
we must not err on the other side and assume that, because it
does not achieve all its aims, such an attitude on the part of
society is entirely innocuous. The sexual life of civilized man is
notwithstanding severely impaired; it sometimes gives the impression of being in process of involution as a function, just as
our teeth and hair seem to be as organs. One is probably
justified in assuming that its importance as a source of feelings of
happiness, and therefore in the fulfilment of our aim in life, has
sensibly diminished. 3 Someti’mes one seems to perceive that it is
not only the pressure of civilization but something in the nature
of the function itself which denies us full satisfaction and urges
us along other paths. This may be
it is hard to decide;•.
1 [The compensation is the obtaining of some measure of security..
See below, p. 62 .]
t Among the works of that sensitive English writer, john Galsworthy,
who enjoys general recognition to-day, there is a short atory of which I
early formed a high opinion. It is called ‘The Apple-Tree•, and it brings
home to us how the life of present-day civilized people leaves no room
for the simple natural love of two human beings.
·
3 The view expressed above is supported by the following c:;onsiderations. Man is an animal organism with (like others) an unmistakably
bisexual disposition. The individual corresponds to a fusion of two
symmetrical halves, of which, according to some inveStigators, one is
purely ma]e and the other female. It is equally possible that each half
was originally hermaphrodite. Sex is a biological fact which, although
.it is of extraordinary importance in mental life, is hard to grasp psycho-
AND ITS n :t s:CONTENTS . .
logicallyo We are accuatOJDtd: to aay that every btuDan being

· •• •. j
.
.

,:
. • ‘:


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..
53
·
both IIiale and fe:male iDttiDctual impulses, need8 and attributeit; bell ·
though aD.a;tomy,’it.S ttue, oan pointout the
Of’!Qaf.en.e.. .
and
tatmo•· For psychology the
fades away mto one between ·a ctivity and paSsivity, in·whi¢h
we far t09 readily identify activity with maleness and
femalenesa, a vieW whiCh ia by no means universalLy
in tjc;
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by Dia.a¥· .
obscurities and we cannot but feel it as a serious
in PY,clJo.; · ·
analysi$ that it hu not yet fpund any link with the theory Of
:
However. this ·may be, if we assume it as a fact that eat;h iqcij;,iiQ ·
seeb to
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.
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SOLUTION: MCCKC Freud’s Ideas and Arguments Essay

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