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The impact of working night shifts on nurses’ daily lives

should be understood and considered by healthcare systems. As we know, working the night shift has always been accepted as a part of working in the healthcare profession; twenty-four-hour- 7 days a week coverage is required. However, very few studies focus on the impact of night shift work on the daily life and overall health of nurses working it. 

Research Question: What are the impacts on life outside of work and the

the overall health of nurses who work night shifts in health care?


            Multiple methodologies can be used in this study.

However, the phenomenology method is the best fit in this researcher’s opinion. 

Researchers suggest that “a qualitative exploratory design allows the researcher to explore a topic with limited coverage within the literature and allows the participants of the study to contribute to the development of new knowledge in that area (Reid-Searl & Happell, 2012)


The stratified purposive sampling is appropriate for this study. This study allows the researcher to ensure that participants have various work backgrounds, ages, ethnicities, and marital statuses, which will increase the sample representativeness (Gray et al., 2017,

p.345). FurthermoreStebbins (2001) suggested that the sampling method is used to maximize the representativeness of a population and recognized that this might be achieved through purposeful or snowball procedures.

Data Collection

  This study will include either a questionnaire survey or semi-structured interviews recorded and transcribed to collect data concerning the experienced effects of shift work on life outside work and night shift work on their health by each participant.  


           Challenges are common in most research studies; however, I would not anticipate many challenges. Although usually a severe concern to most studies, funding should not be a significant issue because of the type of study. However, participant representation can become an issue; it is essential to represent the participants honestly and transparently. Lastly, there may be some challenges with participant transparency and with translating data into useful information.

           Ethical practices are a priority for any good researcher in having a valid study. Some concerns to address will be to ensure that participants had the freedom to speak candidly and that their voices are heard. Additionally, ensuring that the participants’ perceptions are accurately represented. Moreover, the researcher should reflect on any bias to ensure an ethical study.  



           There are several strengths of phenomenological research. Firstly, the phenomenology method provides a vibrant and detailed description of the human experience. It allows for a unique approach to understanding the phenomena. 

            As great as this method is, there are also some

weaknesses. It is challenging to present the findings from this research type; the results can prove to be highly qualitative, which makes it hard to present in a way that would be useful.

Alternative Methods

            Although the phenomenology method is used here, this

author believes that the narrative approach would be just as practical.

Narrative inquiry is a form of qualitative research in which the stories

themselves become the raw data. This

approach has been used in many disciplines to learn more about the narrator’s culture, historical experiences, identity, and lifestyle (Lieblich et al.,1998).

In conclusion, there are many components to consider when conducting a research study; being well informed and prepared will allow researchers to continue implementing evidence-based practice and improving healthcare outcomes. 


Gray, J., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland S.(2017). The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, 

and Generation of Excellence. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Lieblich, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., & Zilber, T. (1998). Narrative research: Reading analysis and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Searl, R., & Happell, B. (2012). Supervising nursing students administering medication: a perspective from registered nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing 21(13), pp. 1998-2005.

Stebbins, R.A. (2001). Exploratory research in the social sciences. London: Sage Publications



Emerging from depression: The experiential process of Healing Touch explored through grounded theory and case study

Do individuals perceive less depression or anxiety after receiving Healing Touch? Do persons experience an increase in spiritual development after receiving Healing Touch?   These are a few of the qualitative research questions that could be presented as a qualitative research question to aid in identifying the objectives of this study. When attempting to obtain a subjective response than using a grounded theory approach, might be suitable.

In using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2017)   I would focus on providing participants subjective experiences with suggestive or tentative conclusions (Creswell & Poth, 2018). This pragmatic perspective might be difficult to execute because of the ethical issues related to this vulnerable population; however, it is possible. Once approval has been attained from the institution responsible for endorsing the study, I would then seek to confirm each participant’s awareness of this study is completely voluntary and that they may recuse themselves at any time. Participants are then informed of the objective of the study, the risks, and the benefits of their participation. Ample time would be provided for participants to ask questions and ponder their decision before providing written informed consent. I would then remind them that the data obtained were kept securely stored and descriptors are used throughout the paper to maintain the anonymity of the participants.

If the grounded theory approach presents as cumbersome then the phenomenology theory might be a viable option (. Phenomenology is nearly purely subjective data-driven to obtain the participants’ perception interactions from their experience within the study’s environment.  The strength of this approach through phenomenological research can be robust in identifying the presence of factors, however, one must be cautious in suggesting the relevance to the population from which the participants or cases were drawn. In such a case, it is possible to have research that demonstrates quantitative significance but fails to demonstrate statistical significance.  Bracketing is difficult to fully extrapolate from any research project, even more so in such a subjective-based method as phenomenology.


Charmaz, K. (2017). The power of constructivist grounded theory for critical inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry, 23 (1), 34-45. Doi: 10.1177/1077800416657105

Creswell, J., &Creswell, J. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the Practice of Nursing       Research: Appraisal, Synthe



The selected personal health record for appraisal is Followmyhealth is a personal health records platform that allows patients and healthcare providers to interact on health-related issues. Patients develop a profile that they use to link with their healthcare providers. The platform allows for the digital delivery of healthcare services through methods such as e-health and telehealth. Patients can also perform other roles such as managing prescriptions and confirming appointments (Roehrs et al., 2017). Therefore, the personal health records profile is highly effective in managing care.

 Personal health records have improved health care delivery and clinical practice. The technology has improved the efficiency in the delivery of health care services. The technology has also strengthened continuity in care alongside patient-centeredness. The increased utilization of the personal health records have led to enhanced operations management alongside patient and provider interaction (Dameff et al., 2019). Personal health records should be mandated for use in health. Personal health records improve the cost-efficiency, patient-centeredness, satisfaction, and continuity of care. Personal health records also facilitate the use of healthcare technologies to achieve goals of Meaningful Use. It ensures the delivery of value-based care to patient populations. The features that might motivate individuals to use the personal health records include ease of use, interconnectedness to other healthcare providers, continuity in case, easy accessibility, and elimination of barriers to care. Issues such as the lack of trust on the safety of patient data with the use of the personalized health records may however deter individuals from using this service (Roehrs et al., 2017). Therefore, I have concerns related to the mechanisms and laws that regulate the protection of the patient data in the use of the system. Despite the concerns, PHRs will influence my professional practice by reducing the cost of care, promoting continuity in care, patient satisfaction and empowerment of patients to take responsibility for their health. 


Dameff, C., Clay, B., & Longhurst, C. A. (2019). Personal Health Records: More Promising in the Smartphone Era? JAMA, 321(4), 339–340.

Roehrs, A., Costa, C. A. da, Righi, R. da R., & Oliveira, K. S. F. de. (2017). Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(1), e13.



Personal Health Records

Personal health records (PHRs) are software applications that patients can use to communicate with their clinician, to enter their own health data, and to access information from their medical record and other sources. PHR  is an aggregation of a patient’s health information over the course of the patient’s life. The contents of a patients PHR varies and includes personal information, insurance information, physician’s information, prescribed medications, and history of payments, insurance claims and health expenses. Software’s that are used to gather data for PHR can also use that information to provide a customized information about the diagnosis, medications and preventive treatments. PHRs benefit more if they are integrated with an electronic health record (EHR). PHR is an important tool for patient-centered care (Reti et al., 2010). PHR are controlled by their patient, information contained in the PHR  are not available to the physician unless the patient makes it available  to the doctor by giving them access to the information. An integrated health record combines the EHR and the PHR and It originates from the health care provider so that clinicians and patients both have access but the information provided by the clinician is view-only by the patient and may not be changed or edited except to enter information from other care providers. PHRs can potentially maximize access and coordination of health information and improve patient/clinician collaboration, patient self-management, and health outcomes (Wagner et al., 2010).

Appraisal of Selected Personal Health Patient Portal

 Follow My Health is a free, secure, online medical records patient portal that helps patients manage their personal health care on a computer, tablet, or smartphone. Patients with access to Follow My Health have direct access to request appointments, communicate with their physician, view lab results, and manage their demographic information anytime. The portal is organized into three sections, the first section is for patients, where they can connect with their doctor. The second is the engagement platform and the last is the employee wellness (Follow my health FMH,2020).

The Influence of PHRs on Health Care Delivery and Clinical Practice.

PHRs can help make patients aware of their health conditions, which could initiate changes in their healthcare plan. Tethered PHRs are connected with EHRs, which means that patients can see data that providers have placed into the PHR. Utilization of PHRs can be beneficial because it allows for the correction of errors in medical records and gives patients access to the information to share with other providers (Lester et al., 2016).

                                                             My Stance on PHRs                                                             

Even if the debate on PHRs are over, I think PHR should stay because it has a lot of potential benefits, one of the most important is the patient access to a wide array of credible health information, data, and knowledge. Patients can leverage that access to improve their health and manage their diseases.

Capabilities and Features that Might Motivate Individuals to Maintain PHRs

The features of PHR that might motivate patients to maintain a PHR are that PHRs captures a patient’s health information so that they are all available in one place, with all the health data in one place, patients can easily identify inconsistencies, track and update their health data, and it decreases the time spent with physicians (Lester et al., 2016).

Factors That May Deter Individuals from Signing Up For PHR

Some factors that may deter patients from signing up for PHR are that the data management can be overwhelming and time consuming.

Lack of awareness because many people are not aware that they have access to their PHR.

Privacy and security concerns of the system being hacked, and their health information compromised.

Lack of interoperability as most physicians are not able to transfer information generated in their system to another provider system and when te patient moves to another system they will be required to start all over to enter detailed information about their diagnoses and treatment all over again which patients found to be time consuming (Ball et al., 2011).

Concerns About a PHR’s Capability to Securely Maintain Personal Information?

From my point of view, there is actually less concerns about the capability of a PHR maintaining personal information as most PHRs provide patients with the capability to control who can access the health information. 

Influence of PHR On My Professional Practice and On Patients’ Health Outcomes. Positively 

The integrated PHR and EHR is the best solution since it allows for the flow of information between the patient and the clinician. The patient can check on the accuracy of the information in the medical record and use it to become better informed about his or her own health. By viewing the patient-entered information, the clinician obtains a more complete record, which can enable better care (Reti et al., 2010).


Ball, M. J., Douglas, J. V., Hinton Walker, P., DuLong, D., Gugerty, B., Hannah, K. J., . . . Troseth, M. R. (Eds.) (2011). Nursing informatics: Where technology and caring meet (4th ed.). London, England: Springer-Verlag.

Follow My Health. (2020). Patient engagement platform.

Lester, M., Boateng, S., Studeny, J., & Coustasse, A. (2016). Personal Health Records: Beneficial or Burdensome for Patients and Healthcare Providers?. Perspectives in health information management, 13(Spring), 1h.

Reti, S. R., Feldman, H. J., Ross, S. E., & Safran, C. (2010). Improving personal health records for patient-centered care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 17(2), 192–195.

Wagner, P. J., Howard, S. M., Bentley, D. R., Seol, Y. H., & Sodomka, P. (2010). Incorporating patient perspectives into the personal health record: implications for care and caring. Perspectives in health information management, 7(Fall), 1e.

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